Art – field of human activity, practiced by artists. There is a coherent, generally accepted definition of art, because its borders are redefined on a continuous basis, at any time, you may receive a work which, arbitrarily adopted, closed the definition does not fit. Art meets a variety of functions, including aesthetic, social, educational, therapeutic, but they are not its essence.
Art was born with the development of human civilization. It can be assumed that at the beginning she was primarily a function connected with magical rites, which preserved among primitive peoples.
Definition of ancient and medieval art.
Word art (łac.ars, Greek. Techne) in Antiquity and Middle Ages meant as much as ability, knowledge of specific rules and procedures in accordance with them, as much as the craft. And in fact, against the pieces counted in addition to paintings and sculptures, many crafts as pottery, tailoring, but also such rhetoric, and strategy. Doing something without rules was the opposite of art, such as early Greeks believed that poetry is created under the inspiration of the Muses, and not turn against it in pieces.
Art „common” and „liberated”.
What connects art with craft and part science was for the ancient and medieval thinkers far more visible than what distinguishes them. There was division between art and craft of art, but it was divided because of it, or just engage your mind, or require some physical effort. The former was called liberated arts (artes Liberales) and the last ordinary (artes vulgares), common in the Middle Ages and was renamed the mechanical. Liberal arts were considered to be much higher than mechanical. Exchanged seven liberal arts: grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy and music. In the Middle Ages, mechanical art (among which was also a sculpture, painting or architecture) attempted, for the sake of symmetry is also reduced to seven, and that many more było, exchanged te considered most relevant, czyli to utilitarian dimension (sztuki nazywane today nie beautiful fit So for the lists of items).
Definition of Renaissance art.
The rebirth of the social status of artists is growing, they began to seek to raise the status of their profession and the separation of crafts, and so aspire to scholars, raising sculpture, architecture and painting to the rank of science, the more that it combines perfectly with their aspirations, to calculate their works with mathematical precision. It was only later appeared in opposition to this close approach, the art is also separated from the teachings. Although the name of the awareness that art is something different from the sciences and crafts, there was no idea of what unites what is today called the fine arts. It was originally thought that this is a drawing, arts, and talked about drawing, but they did not know on what basis to join the music, dance and theater. Attempts to distinguish a mental art, music, memory, imaging.
In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries lasting disputes about names in the field of art. Only in the middle of the eighteenth century French Enlightenment philosopher, Charles Batteux, introduced the term fine arts (beaux-arts), which belong to them, painting, sculpture, architecture, music, eloquence, poetry, dance and theater.
Art from the nineteenth century, withdraws from the crafts and more closely associated with the concept of creativity, originality, individuality and innovation. Matter of art are works of art, and their authors (as an ideal model) are motivated artists inner compulsion to create, or the need to express feelings, solve their own problems, or universal, niedającymi limited only to the provider of aesthetic functionality.
Contemporary definitions of art.
Art today, from Dadaism and Surrealism, no longer such a definition, the beauty in the aesthetic appearance actually came out of art, and for its own sake is not only a distinctive value, but even it is not necessary. During its long history of the concept art from a very wide, the precise delimitation significantly narrowing their area, but clearly its boundaries blurred.
In contemporary societies, largely appropriated by the entertainment industry, the art has become to some extent also in another branch of industry (see: popular arts).
Resignation from the definition.
In the twentieth century art to include the concepts of open group (a term created by Ludwig Wittgenstein), that is those which are grouped in a loose objects not in the obvious features in common, only what Wittgenstein described as a „family resemblance” and therefore such that it can not be provide for such groups are necessary and sufficient features. This approach met with criticism due to the fact that under it against the art could include anything.
Based on an alternative formula „or-or”
Art is the restoration of the thing or constructing forms, or an expression of experience – if the product of this play, construction, is capable of expressing delight, or move, or shake the
Nominative definition of art.
Feature of the total for all works of art is to be the intention with which the work was set up. If the developer creates them with the intention of creating a work is the product of work is imperative. This corresponds to the Donald Judd saying that art is what art is to be considered. Such a definition, in turn, prevents the valuation of creations, as in the previous case, everything that the author considers to be art, it must be, regardless of the level, what it represents.
Whether the object or event becomes a work of art depends on whether the whole people of art, called. artworld. considers this to be art by intersubiektywnych opinion. There is an important context for the current state of art theory, as well as place and time, because not everything is possible at any time and place. This point of view clearly separates the art of aesthetic values. Introduced the concept of contextual art in Poland, Jan Świdziński.
Institutional definition of art.
Shot very similar to the above, only that the artworld is here understood as the art of dealing with social institutions in a broad sense. The group stresses that this is not understood artworld strictly formal structure, recognition of an object as a work of art is not the shape of a formal, official posting. This conception of art as much as previous distracts from the art of aesthetic values.
Models of the art of Atkinson.
Terry Atkinson for four models of the art:
* Constructing objects whose form has all the features necessary to ensure that the item be considered as a work of art. (Eg, painting the picture)
* Adding new features to those that have already been established as an appropriate work of art. (Such as Magdalena Abakanowicz creating for the first time the spatial composition of the textile art)
* Recognition of any objects as works of art, if they will be placed in context, which placed it as such. (Such as Marcel Duchamp’s Fountain
* Creation of theoretical objects with characteristics tautological, statement of art about art (conceptual, metasztuka)
Postmodern view of art.
Once all the holistic, modern systems, which determine the appropriate objectives of art, distinctive art from niesztuki lapsed impaired „objective”, „external” point of support for the courts of the art, there is no end to them, a theoretical justification. Same division between art and niesztukę, however, remained, forming on a regular basis in the ongoing discourse on art, does not have, and how it turns out, it no longer needs any deeper roots in any meta-narratives.
Art and aesthetics.
The modern concepts of art with aesthetic view of nature was given in the question of Romanticism (by such directions as naturalism, expressionism). These phenomena were the aesthetic thought long marginalized, the breakthrough came only with the vanguard, he ceased to be a sensitive view of the basis not only for evaluation, but even recognize a work of art (Dadaism, Surrealism, Cubism). ’60s Avant-garde (Eg conceptual) rejected all the distinguishing aesthetic art.
Assigned to perform the art in the lives of individuals and society, a number of functions. The following list of them is neither complete nor objective:
* Transport – the artist by his work communicates with the receiver,
* Aesthetic – the art would cause the recipient’s specific aesthetic experiences, such as referring to the idea of beauty,
* Cognitive – the recipient knows not only work, but also the history of ancestors, through the works can be „transferred” to the world of that time 
* Ethical, propaganda, educational – art would educate, teach, encourage, reveals certain patterns or standards of conduct,
* Metaphysical (religious) – a work of art created with the motivation of metaphysical (religious) and are designed to stimulate the emotions, music, paintings, sculpture, architecture serve spiritual life or religion, but also derive from its themes of his works, God, Greek mythology, were devoted to numerous works of David by Michelangelo, the Sistine Chapel frescoes, the Last Supper – Leonardo da Vinci and many others;
* Emotional – manifested primarily in the dance and music 
* Therapeutic – the assumption that art can heal, catharsis – the cleaning of the psyche (music therapy, poezjoterapia, wideoterapia, Library-, filmoterapia, chromatoterapia, dramoterapia, ludoterapia, choteoterapia)
* Ludic (playful) – allows you to relax and take the pressure through the active participation or acceptance as a spectator in such areas as dance, music, comedy, satire, cabaret;
* Identification and integration – integrates the arts and has a membership of some social groups (eg doctors, scouts, musicians, Poles), helps maintain the cultural identity of local communities and nations;
* Usable – is the art services, such as arts and crafts, everyday objects (industrial design), architecture, but also satire, dance music.
The term field of art should not be confused with the artistic direction or trend, which may involve many areas of art. As an example, minimal art. This is the direction, which includes the areas of painting and sculpture.
Art + ballet
+ Opera series (only sung)
+ Opera buffa
+ Opera semiseria
of the underground theater
the theater of the absurd
of political theater: Agit-prop
a folk theater
a dance theater
* Production Design
* Industrial design