Cathedral of St Peter and St Mary in Cologne (German: Kölner Dom, officially Hohe Domkirche St. Peter und Maria) – the Metropolitan Cathedral, the largest and most important church of Cologne. The seat of the Archbishopric of Cologne existing here since 313 years.
Construction of the present church began in 1248 and continued intermittently for over 600 years to 1880. Located on-site Roman temple from the fourth century and the early church from the time of the Carolingian Rhine River near Cologne Cathedral is 144 meters long and 86 m in width and height of towers of 157.38 m  After graduating from the towers (around 1870) the Cathedral was the tallest building in the world to 1884. It is the second most amount of neo-Gothic building in the world (after the cathedral in Ulm) and the third largest neo-Gothic cathedral the world in terms of area (after the cathedral of Santa Maria, in Seville and the Cathedral of St. Nativity. Maria in Milan).
The area with the towers of the church is 7000 m². In 1996 the cathedral was inscribed on UNESCO World Heritage Site. The building is a showcase of both Cologne and the whole of Germany, highly visited by pilgrims and tourists, in 2001 it was nearly 6 million people. In 2005, the cathedral was one of the main points of the program of World Youth Day led by Pope Benedict XVI.
The construction of the temple was started not only for liturgical but also to put in it imported from Milan, the relics of the Magi. High chancel is the ideological reference to medieval reliquaries. Relics of Cologne made an important center of pilgrimage in the Middle Ages, only the outgoing Rome, Jerusalem, Santiago de Compostela and Akwizgranowi.
In terms of architecture the cathedral is a valuable example of the reception of French Gothic cathedral, and widespread in the countries of the Reich method of repeated application of vertical elements within and external elevations. In the nineteenth century was one of the most important sources of inspiration for the Gothic Revival architecture. Remained not only a place of medieval perception of the trade, but also provided inspiration for the idea of strengthening Catholicism in Germany, among others proclaimed by August Reicherspergera. The interior design creates a valuable collection of medieval art, modern and contemporary. Among them stand out above the prevailing Gothic high altar from the second half. Thirteenth century reliquary of the Three Kings, pre-Romanesque crucifix Gerona, Saint Clare gothic altars from the fourteenth century, and the Patrons of the City of altar-work of Stefan Lochner, the Gothic sculpture of Madonna and the Apostles, Milan, stalls, numerous stained glass windows from the thirteenth to the twentieth century.
Former Carolingian cathedral.
In Roman times, near the site where the present temple is located north side was the old city walls, the camp founded by Agrippina. This place is from those times was a sacred, there was a temple built by Mercurius Augustus. In the fourth century when Christianity arrived in Cologne in the old, pagan temple was replaced by a temple built by Archbishop Maternus. In the era of Empire in the years 818-870 Karolinska was dwuchórowa basilica with a transept, choir dedicated to the Holy Peter Western, Eastern and the Virgin Mary – such a call Cologne temple survived until today. In the time of the pontificate of Archbishop Bruno extended the main aisle of the south and the north aisle, now the temple was a five-. In addition, to the east of the cathedral church of the Virgin erected acting collegiate called St. Maria ad Gradus, which was rebuilt several times especially in the Gothic period, there was a nineteenth century the old cathedral, Cologne has fire on 30 April 1248.
Construction of the Gothic chancel.
In 1164 Archbishop Rainald of Dassel City brought from Milan to Cologne, the Magi relics donated to the church by Frederick Barbarossa. Reliquary commissioned the construction of an appropriate one of the greatest goldsmiths of the time, Nicholas of Verdun. The work of the goldsmith began in 1181 and were completed by craftsmen Cologne for almost forty years later. Reliquary made in the old cathedral, which soon proved too small to meet the huge mass of pilgrims. Incidentally Cologne then grew into the largest after the Holy Land, Rome and Santiago de Compostela pilgrimage center. In 1225 it was decided to build a new cathedral. While most religious buildings in the Rhine was built in the Romanesque cathedral of Cologne time was able to raise the recognition in the Cologne and its environs, however, in relation to the main temples of the Archbishopric of two powerful Rhine – cathedrals in Mainz and Trier was a small temple, not to mention Western Europe. The initiators of the new higher elevation of the cathedral were the Archbishop Engelbert (years 1216 to 1225 the office) and, above all, Konrad von Hochstaden, the first representative of the electorate of Cologne, who ruled from 1238 to 1261, who chose as a model of French cathedrals built in the soaring new Gothic style. Application forms in the construction of French Gothic cathedral was the result of political orientation, Archbishop von Hochstaden, de facto, to emphasize the prestige of the Archbishopric of Cologne, the cathedral chapter and the cathedral as a center of worship had to choose the most sophisticated model, hence the use of new construction experience and artistic western neighbor theological and ideological point of view was the best choice. The ambitions of the Archbishopric of Cologne has increased after the relics of the Magi, who was a summa of all the shrines, which is why the new cathedral was to be the summa of all the cathedrals.
Foundation stone laid in 1248, Archbishop Konrad von Hochstaden. The first builder of the cathedral was Gerhard von Rila. Successive builders are also well-known names, they include Arnold and Johannes. The main material for the construction of the cathedral was trachyt Siedmiogórza coming from the east bank of the Rhine. The result of over 70 years of work is present czteroprzęsłowe, closed polygonal choir with ambulatory and chapels polygonal eastern rim (so-called chevet). Used here in the full form of classical Gothic cathedral, both in the spatial as well as in architectural form strictly subordinated to the new theological thoughts. Solemn dedication of the sanctuary were made in the 1322nd
The period of crisis.
In 1410 the south tower podciągnięto to the second floor, and soon was suspended bells: the bell of the Magi (in 1418), Pretiosa (in 1448) and speciosa (in 1449). The pace of construction work has begun to slow in the late fifteenth century. Approximately 1,510 construction halted due to financial problems and lack of interest. Work finally abandoned in 1560, leaving a completed tower and south aisle of the lower lots and facades. At over three hundred years dominated the city silhouette unfinished building with a huge crane on the sloping south tower. From this period comes from the saying that comes before the end of the world than the cathedral will be ready.
Ground plan of the cathedral
With the birth of Romanticism and the associated cult of Gothic resumed work on the completion of the cathedral. Luckily found the original plans for the facade of the cathedral. In 1814, in Darmstadt Georg Moller was part of the plans drawn up by the second builder of the cathedral of Arnold. In the second part of came across in 1816 in Paris Sulpiz Boisserée which, along with Joseph Görres became the main promoter of the idea of the completion of the cathedral. In addition, sponsorship of the work of Augustus took Reichensperger, policies forming the Center Party, the propagator of the renewal of Catholicism in Germany and Gothic art, the author of numerous books on art.
Foundation stone laid for further construction in 1842 the Prussian king Friedrich Wilhelm IV, and then coadjutor, and later Archbishop Johannes von Geissel. Laying a foundation stone was preceded by the creation of Cologne cathedral building societies, which took the fund-raising. The work on the cathedral helped pay for the Prussian state. That guided the work of renowned architects gothic era, Ernst Friedrich Zwirner, Karl Eduard Richard Voigtel, Vincenz Statz, and others. Work is entrusted by large sculptural decoration shop, who represented among others Peter Fuchs and Ernst Zwirner said. After the death of building continued Zwirnera Karl Eduard Richard Voigtel. Cathedral was completed after more than 600 years in 1880.
While most of the old city of Cologne was almost leveled to the ground by Allied air bombardment, although the cathedral survived several bomb hits from more serious damage. In some places the roof was destroyed and fragments of arches, in addition to the elevations observed many damaged by splinters from explosions of missiles.
In recent decades the cathedral has suffered most from air pollution. Acid rain and gases przeżerały stone zafarbowały it dark gray. In 2004-2006 the cathedral was on the list of endangered World Heritage sites . Restoration Work in progress continuously to keep the exchange defective parts of the facade.
On November 15, 1980, during his visit to Germany, Pope John Paul II visited the cathedral, which celebrated a holy mass. At the mention of his visit Elmar Hillebrand made in 1985, a commemorative plate embedded in one of the pillars of the north nave. In August 2005, the cathedral was one of the main celebrations of World Youth Day, which Pope Benedict XVI presided.
Cologne Cathedral has become the content of numerous paintings and prints. Among the best known examples, a series of performances open to this day preserved the plans of some parts of the so-called temple. Plan F at the head – over czterometrowym figure, the western façade design on parchment made taking into account the smallest architectural details. Other drawings illustrate the parts of the facade and side kicks. Characteristic views of the cathedral from the side of the Rhine with the completed sanctuary and built a tower south known primarily from a series of paintings adorning the shrine church. Ursula made by Hans Memling. In a similar construction of the cathedral will be presented in the famous skyline of Cologne showing woodcut made in 1531 by painter and graphic artist Anton Woensama.
Architecture built entirely of stone cathedral is one of greatest achievements of Gothic architecture and is a good witness not only knowledge, but also the individual editors of classical forms of Gothic cathedral, which began in France. Spatial arrangement of the choir with ambulatory and chapels wreath, the proportions and diafaniczność (transparent structure) have been consistently applied here, making the eastern part of the cathedral is the achievement of theological thinking and artistic well-known since the rule of Abbot Suger who sponsored the extension of abbey church of Saint-Denis near Paris. Architectural forms refer to the Cologne cathedral, the main achievements of the twelfth and thirteenth-century French Gothic architecture such as Sainte-Chapelle and the Cathedral of Amiens. What’s more, the builder could be summed up in the cathedral of Cologne architectural achievements in the Capetian monarchy. From the ideological, according to the French choir practice is to remind its richness and multiplicity of architectural motifs goldsmith work. Situated in the old shrine późnoromańskim remains of the Magi were placed in a sui generis great architectural shrine. Façade with two towers known fourteenth-century drawings differs from the classic forms of solutions to the individual, common in the Reich.
Cologne Cathedral in its present form has a Latin cross plan. This is a five-oriented basilica with transept and presbytery trójnawowym the wreath and the Ambit of chapels. To the west, two towers on a square plan. Layout of the temple, where the workaround is to continue in the side aisles of the transept and the main body refers to the spatial arrangement of the medieval pilgrimage church. After all, relics of the Magi were intended to be located at the intersection of aisles, the sanctuary was situated on a hill it in the chapel of the Magi – located in the „key” of the church, to the east, right behind the main altar. In the extreme western side chapels were ambulatory, two other important works of a cult – a crucifix Gerona (north side) and the Madonna of Milan (south side). As a result, all these works arranged hieratycznie form a triangle pointing to the east, so ambitious with a wreath of chapels was the last section of the pilgrimage route, which was the culmination of closely located in the eastern part. The chancel, which the rest of the temple choir odgradzała compartment was reserved for the clergy.
The plan of the cathedral is characterized by clarity and almost fully structured proportions. Juxtaposed create a harmony of the individual bays based on the size of squares that creates a span crossing aisles. There also is a clear ideological hierarchy, the aisles at the intersection was scheduled to be located shrine of the Magi. Each square of this size correspond to the span of two rectangular bays of the nave in the middle of the transept and chancel, and four in the other aisles. As a result, the width of aisles and the pairs of the nave is the same. In the case of a transverse nave been reduced by one of the aisles on each side, but is not affected by the proportion of the whole temple. The eastern part – with the closure of the choir ambulatory chapels and a wreath with the rest of the cathedral creates a unified whole. Hi west, the towers but has similar proportions to the rest is clearly separated.
The oldest part of the cathedral is the eastern part of the upper sanctuary czteroprzęsłowe poligonalnie which is closed (7 / 12 sides) with bypass and a wreath of chapels, seven of which are polygonal eastern, centralizujący plan, others have a rectangular plan, with the extreme ambulatory chapels – St. Cross and Virgin are larger than others. The transept has nine bays with aisles, crossing a square in the middle, while the main aisle has six bays, the nave and the choir music has eight spans. The two western przęsłom nave of four bays correspond located in the basement of the towers.
The interior is entirely covered with cross-ribbed vault resting on a richly profiled służkach adjacent to the lateral walls. In the case of arches in the bottom międzynawowych shafts adjacent to the pillars wiązkowych. Corbel vault at the base are decorated with capitals of various forms of decoration. Consistently repeated two of the interior – single height has nave, chancel and nave of the transept and the highest pair of the side aisles of the main body, to circumvent the chapels of the transept and aisles.
Walls of the chancel and nave are divided into three zones, the lowest of the upper arcade międzynawowe, middle of the sequence and the gossamer czterodzielnych triforiów czterodzielnymi higher with large windows with richly decorated tracery. The height of the lowest and highest zone is the same, which is consistent with the ratio of the major French cathedrals (the cathedral of Chartres, Reims, Beauvais). The last of these examples is the characteristic form of triforiów, which are similar triforia Cologne Cathedral. Arrangement of shafts and base of the capitals that adorn the capitals are characterized by lightness, which is an example of an individual editor forms acquired from Ile-de-France.
Classical form of French Gothic cathedral used outdoors, primarily in construction. The walls of the nave, the central nave, transept and chancel are almost entirely przeprute windows. Each span is a complex but separated by an ordered system of arcs of the sublimated articulation of resistance and numerous items wertykalizujących temple, mostly of a fancy Fiala. The windows are obramione wimpergami with blind tracery of leafy motifs masks. Crown walls crowned with fialami tracery railings.
The western facade.
The western facade is largely the result of nineteenth-century building, but its form is completely subordinated to the fourteenth-century projects, primarily plan F. The high, 157-meter towers are a symbol and pride of the cathedral and the city, from 1880 to 1981 (the construction of the tower so-called television. Coloniusem) were the highest in the city, are now third (after the tower of the cathedral in Ulm and the dome of the church in the basilica of Our Lady Queen of Peace in Yamoussoukro, Côte d’Ivoire).
The oldest part of the facade is a lot lower south tower (two storeys) with a portal called the Gate of St.. Peter leads indirectly to the southern aisle. The two lower floors are divided into five axes, two towers and a central axis located at the bottom of the main entrance of the nineteenth-century portal and a big window, richly decorated with tracery. Central axis of the façade is topped with a triangular peak laskowaniami.
Towers are on the ground floor plan of the square of their length and width are roughly equal to two przęsłom aisles. Two upper floors of the plan to pass an octagon. In the corners, over the second tier of slender towers rise up to the crown of the fourth storey towers of the walls. Both crown castellated towers, soaring, pyramid helmets decorated with rich tracery, divided into nine zones. Helmets crowned double-crosses her arms – symbols of the dignity of archbishop.
In the third storey south tower and the bell tower hangs a team of eleven bells, which in the opinion kampanologii be the largest in Germany. Five of them dates from the construction of Gothic cathedrals, notably Bell Magi (poured in 1880), and Pretiosa speciosa. The oldest bells are small bells re-suspended sygnatyrce – Angelus and Wandlungsglocke which date back to the beginning of the fourteenth century. Angelusglocke struck the bell on the Wandlungsglocke Angelus fought during the act of transubstantiation of the Eucharistic Bread and Wine. The largest bell is the bell of St. Peter, popularly known as Fat Piotrek (German: Dicke Pitter), which de facto is currently the largest bell in the world beating. Calling on the feast of the Epiphany, the Feast of the Apostles Peter and Paul, the holy Virgin Mary and the most important religious ceremonies. Until 1918 there was a so-called. Bell Station (German Kaiserglocke) was cast by founder Andreas Hamm to commemorate the victorious Franco-Prussian War in 1871. He Sound cis0, weighed 27000 kg, in the heart of approximately 1,000 kg. At the end of World War I, a bell was requisitioned by the military and melted in the artillery. To this day, his heart which was situated on the outside corner of the nave of the cathedral in the south and west of the nave of the transept.
Inside the cathedral of Cologne’s numerous works of art have survived, mainly medieval. The lion’s share of modern works was removed within the overall regotycyzacji Cathedral, including some church altars. Clare Patron Saints of Cologne and the works are re-placed in the cathedral, mainly from temples no longer exist in Cologne. Also, the nineteenth-century building phase within a number of works of art (mainly sculpture and stained glass) whose nature and form is most closely associated with Gothic architecture and fine arts.
The chancel with ambulatory, and a wreath at the core of the cathedral, from the architectural, ideological as well as for interior decoration. As part of the choir survived almost complete equipment, the main work – Reliquary of the Magi has been re-positioned behind the main altar mens.
The main altar.
In the eastern part of the choir, the altar, which in its present form dates from the year makes 1322 the year of mensa stone made of marble decorated with rich figural decoration. Behind her on a high pedestal, in a modern, specially made of armored glass display case located in the most important and most significant work of art, the whole ideological basis of the cathedral, the archbishop of Cologne as well as throughout the former Empire – Reliquary of the Magi.
Gothic altar table.
The main altar in the cathedral of Cologne.
The sacred day of September 27, 1322 and dedicated to St Peter’s main altar preserved gothic mens – the altar table, the table top is made of black marble. Form the basis of its four walls covered with carved white marble decoration figuralno-architecture. It is formed by ogival arches surmounted by stylized wimpergami placed in openwork, maswerkowym background. Part of the original sculpture has not survived to this day, some of them located in the Cologne Museum of A. Schnütgena. Been displayed on a central axis to provide relief Coronation of the Virgin by the Savior. On the sides are three-dimensional figures of the Twelve Apostles. The closest major stage presentation are saints Peter and Paul. Similarly, the exterior of the other sides of Mensa. Shorter sides on the axes are presented scenes of the Presentation of Christ in the temple and the Annunciation to the Virgin from the east side scene of Adoration of the Magi.
Shrine of the Three Kings.
The most valuable object of the cathedral is located in the main altar shrine of the Magi – the medieval goldsmiths’ work in Europe. It was made between 1181 and 1230th around Reliquary is domkowym type, consists of three sarcophagi are sui generis form a three-nave basilica, two sarcophagi standing next to each other form the basis for the third sarcophagus. It is made of wood, completely covered with gold and silver lining and sophisticated decoration in precious metals and more than a thousand precious stones, gems and cameos. On the walls of the shrine presents the biblical story of the world as well as the prophets and apostles. The author of this work is Nicholas of Verdun and his workshop.
On both sides, along the chancel are three strings, double row gothic stalls along major one hundred and four seats, a valuable work of an early woodwork. According to dendrochronological studies involving the base of the stall time of the creation of a monumental work dates back to the years between 1308 and 1311 year. The function of this work was not limited for use by clergy and representatives of the Cologne cathedral chapter. Two separate seats were reserved for the pope and the emperor. Made in situ work and certify the skills of Lorraine Paris art era Gothic. Rich three-dimensional ornamental and figural decorations include primarily the barrier between the seats and rows of stalls each. In addition, the walls are numerous consoles and creating relief scenes from the Old Testament (such as Daniel in the lion’s den, Samson conquering lion) in addition moralistic themes (virtues and vices) hidden in zoomorphic representations and genre. Illustrate the various musical threads muzykujące angels, figurines and the dancers in the Middle Ages has been interpreted as the source of the dangers facing the human soul. On the idea of imperial seat of Constantine the Great, the Pope Sylvester I.
The paintings septum choirs.
Adjacent to the barrier stalls choir from the chancel which is decorated with a great cycle of paintings that contain a great series on Mary, the patrons of Cologne, and the papal and imperial threads, the two greatest powers of Christian Europe. Individual scenes are encoded in the painted architectural decoration, separating a whole into three zones. The lower zone in the arcade are obramieniach całopostaciowe forward towards forming of Roman emperors (north side) and against the bishops and archbishops of Cologne, which ends present Walrama von Jülich (1332-1349). In the central zone is the main cycles, on the north side of St. Peter’s Life, The Legend of St. Sylvester, on the south side of the threads of life of Mary and the Three Kings and saints Felix and Nabor and with Gregor Spoleto. The highest form raportowo zone exterior of architectural motifs – ogival arcades, wimpergi, Fiala and turrets. Range of colors paintings hover around the brown, blue, and red chrysanthemums. From the stylistic and workshop, the paintings have a heterogeneous nature, in addition to influence the local art, which developed the so-called. School cologne, book-certify the skills paintings France and England, are also visible influences art and Italian art of the Czech heralds era the Luxembourg court.
Team Gothic figures.
From the sanctuary of the pillars adjacent międzynawowych over life-size stone statues of the Twelve Apostles. The location of the apostles at the pillars determines the base pillars as a symbol of the Catholic Church and the apostolic ministry of the Christian clergy. In the era of Gothic, the series was first used in 1248 in the Sainte-Chapelle in Paris, Cologne programming dates back to the early years of the second half of the thirteenth century. These figures characterized by the contrast between naturalism and Gothic styling. While the faces, the proportions and pose kontrapostowe fall under the categories of realism, as hairstyles and costumes are rich decoration of stylized. Each of the apostles is dressed in full splendor representation clothes, tight clothes folded. In the hands holding the book, and characteristic for each attribute. The basis of the figures are richly decorated consoles vegetation canopies and the culmination in the form of polygonal towers at the concert which was presented angelic. Instruments including sculptured form bells, violin, bagpipes, lute, trumpet, tambourine, also an angel sings. With two eastern pillars are creating a whole series of common figures of Jesus and Mary.
To work around the cathedral and the adjacent quadrilateral sided chapels, acting as a cult, they are also the resting place of Cologne archbishops. Like the choir remained rich decor in the numerous works of medieval art.
The walls of the chapel were all once painted, with stained-glass windows create an integral whole. To this day, have been preserved dating from the fourteenth and fifteenth century pieces, including the largest collection of paintings in the chapel of St.. Agnes showing the threads of the Legend of the Holy Cross and holy life Irmgardy from Zutphen, Princess Geldern, founder of numerous hospitals and homes for the poor. In the chapel of St.. John acted Group Crucifixion with Saints John the Baptist and Lawrence. In the chapel of St.. Stephen’s paintings with scenes from the saint’s life and the stoning of St. Gerona. Stephen.
On the north side of the cathedral, at the entrance to the ambulatory obiegającego apse, in the chapel of St.. Cross, near the entrance to the sacristy, is from the tenth century crucifix Gerona, one of the key works of sculpture is among the early Romanesque art against the Ottoman. This monumental crucifix has a height of 2.88 m (life-size figure of Christ 1.76 m.), is made of oak. Its founder named Archbishop Gerowi (year pontificate 969-976).
On the south side, in the chapel of Marian (German Marienkapelle) is a work of art of the fifteenth-century Cologne – Altar of the Magi, (also known as the Altar of the Holy Patrons German: Altar der Cologne, Cologne, or German: Kölner Stadtpatrone Dombild). According to the name of the altar is dedicated to the main patrons of the city, which at the time the work was the creation of the Free City of the Reich and the main center of the Hanseatic League. Principal work was Cologne City Council. Until the nineteenth century housed the altar in the chapel hall Cologne. It is a triptych which is the chef d’oeuvre of the late Gothic painter, Stephan Lochner, one of the main representatives of the so-called. Cologne school. The main part of the altar shows the scene of the Adoration of the Magi centrally situated Madonna and Child with side wings provide such triptych St. Ursula surrounded by virgins and St. Gereon. On the sides Annunciation Virgin Mary.
Madonna Milan 
Beside the altar of the Magi is the Madonna of Milan, an early, monumental sculpture from the late thirteenth and fourteenth centuries made on the site of the former figures from Milan which, together with the relics of the Magi brought to the cathedral by Frederick Barbarossa. In 1248 was destroyed by fire. This sculpture was a cult, was located in the Gothic canopy supported by four columns (to have retained a consummate piece of one of the four arcades). It is one of the first productions of Gothic Madonna and Child.
Decoration of the transept and the main body.
In the northern corner of the nave and transept arm is located as the Gothic altar retable polyptych, made in two stages in 1350-1360, and then about 1400 for the Cologne church of the Poor Clares, who, along with the monastery was demolished in the nineteenth century. The most important design elements is ideally secondarily in various churches of the city, while polyptych moved to the cathedral, which sits at the table of the main altar. Maintenance work in 1907-1919, during which he was at the big picture domalowany odwrociu retable cabinet, unveiled what is true of paintings from the fourteenth century, but at the expense of paintings from the fifteenth century, primarily in the outer wings. After the last war retable placed near the northern arm of the transept of the cathedral.
Modernisation of the Altar of the Poor Clares consists of a central body of the Tabernacle, located in the middle and two pairs of movable wings divided into two zones falling arch arches painted apartments and sculptures. Closed altar in the present divided into two zones, painted arches, representing a holy martyrs, virgins and monks and nuns (including saints, Francis Louis, Anthony and Clara.) The first opening includes a painted around 1400 series of paintings of scenes from the life of Christ and Mary, while the second includes the arcade niches in the upper zone of the Twelve Apostles-dimensional figures in the bottom of the bust reliquary. The tabernacle door is decorated with the presentation of St. Martin in a rare iconographic type showing the full splendor of the holy bishop’s costume carrying an act of transubstantiation. Above the arcade aediculi Madonna and Child.
In the south-east pillar corners wooden cross aisles Renaissance pulpit, the oldest preserved the work of its kind in Cologne. It is characterized by architectural forms resembling a canopy covered with a balcony with restrained decoration. Stand out płaskorzeźbione presentation of Saints Peter and Paul. In addition to the next pillar of the transept monumental sandstone figure of the Madonna and Child Gothic about 1420. From the stylistic represents the international Gothic style, which certifies pose sophisticated, delicate gestures of Mary and Jesus, and finally the system liquid with soft drapes światłocieniowym modeling.
Tombstones and epitaphs.
Cologne Cathedral since its beginnings of history, is the burial place of bishops and archbishops Rhineland city. In the ambulatory chapels are the oldest of this type of work, most of these are the tombs of płaskorzeźbionymi tumbowe images of hierarchy on the disc surface. The oldest tombstones are gothic tumbowe archbishops; St. Irmgard (+ 1280) with richly decorated walls of Tumby wimpergami ogival arcades, the founder of the cathedral Konrad von Hochstaden (+ 1261) with a brown top with a full plate of realism image hierarchy, Rainald von Dassel (+ c. 1290); Walrama von Jülich and William von Gennep, both pre-1362,, Engelbert von der Mark from 1364 to 1368, the only person who lay in the Gothic tomb lies tumbowym is a graph of Saarwerden Frederick (1414). Have an atypical form of tombstones Philipp von Heinsberg, about .1300 of the finial decorated with motifs Tumby castle architecture, and Dietrich von Moers (1463) with a group of statues depicting Archbishop pełnoplastycznych adoration and patrons of the cathedral. In the modern period became widespread custom of remembrance at the cathedral hierarchy erecting monumental tombstones embedded in the wall. Stand out among others Arnoldus Haldreniusa tombstones (1,534) with relief of prayer in Gethsemane, Adolf von Schauenburg (1561) Renaissance, with the image in the pose of the so-called hierarchy. sansovinowskiej with reźbionymi personifications and Relief presentation of the Resurrection; Adam Daemena (1717) Baroque. Since the nineteenth century, the burial place of the archbishops and bishops of Cologne is the crypt, where the walls are tombstones in the form of stone slabs with a flat relief.
Most of the windows of the cathedral is decorated with numerous stained glass windows, in most places. On the axis of the eastern ambulatory chapel is the oldest stained-glass window of 1260, known as the Old Window Bible. Gothic stained glass windows adorn the sanctuary of the ambulatory and chapels (with additions from the nineteenth century). The fifteenth-century stained glass windows adorned the north aisle. In other parts of the stained glass windows from the nineteenth and early twentieth century, large window of the transept is adorned with stained glass by Gerhard Richter in 2007
Stained-glass windows of the XIII-XV century
Thirteenth oldest stained glass in the windows are known as the Old and New Window Bible. The windows are divided into two parts, they are placed in apartments stained with selected episodes of the Old and New Testament, where the parallel narrative runs upwards. In the central axis of the ambulatory chapel is called. „Old Window Bible” (German: Alte Bibelfenster) which has the oldest stained glass in the cathedral (1260). Cycle stages of the same window opens Creation of Adam and Eve, which is juxtaposed with the Nativity of the Virgin. The next stage is in love with Isaac Rebekah Annunciation, God’s revelation to Moses of Christmas, visit Makeda Solomon in the Adoration of the Magi, Noah in the ark of the Baptism of Christ, the feast of Abraham and Sarah with the Last Supper, the sacrifice of Abraham, the Crucifixion, spitting Jonah by the whale the Resurrection, and Ascension, Assumption of Elijah the Lord. Coming from a former Dominican church (destroyed in 1804) New Window Bible is maintained in a similar convention, with a few other scenes are summarized: Healing Naaman with Baptism of the Lord, Abraham’s meeting with Melchizedek of the Last Supper, Achior Attachment to the tree with scourging, adjudication brazen serpent on the cross with the Crucifixion, Moses received the tables of the commandments of Pentecost.
In the ambulatory chapels there are several teams from the fourteenth century stained glass windows preserved the band dated to around 1330, the stained-glass windows with architectural motifs as on the paired images of the saints does not include Window of Saints Peter and Maternus, Felix and Nabor, Sylvester and George, and Anna Seweryn, Gero, and Maurice. Have a similar form showing the stained glass saints adorujący Blessed Sacrament (St. Kunibert, Agnes), and stained with scenes of James interrogated by Herod, Adoration of the Magi, Coronation of Mary. Some are also decorated with the coats of arms at the bottom of the founders. The windows of the chancel survived several stained glass windows from 1300 images of the kings of the Old Testament.
Late Gothic character are stained glass windows of the nave and north of the northern arm transptu, sponsored among others by Philipp von Daun, canon of the cathedral, Count Philip von Virneburg, the Town Council. In addition to the stained glass depicting the cycles (Passion of the Christology in 1508, and dated to 1525 and 1560, the churches do not exist from Cologne) remained stained with individual scenes (Adoration of the Magi stained glass from 1508 onwards).
Stained-glass windows from the nineteenth century
Most survived made of stained glass in the nineteenth century. In the south aisle is a stained glass team funded by the Bavarian King Ludwig I. They are dated to the year 1846 with the stained glass Adoration of the Magi, mourning of Christ, Pentecost, and the stained glass windows from St. Ukamieniowaniem. Stephen and John the Baptist. Complemented the team XIV century stained glass in the chapels are in the works of ambulatory Zwirnera Friedrich Ernst, manager of completion of construction of the cathedral (St. Catherine and St.. Heribert, Saint. And St. Barbara. Ewergislis, St. And St. Ursula. Clement). In the south transept arm are located opposite the window from the life of church. And St. Peter. Paul’s (destroyed during the War and reconstructed), the work funded by the Community Railways Rhine 1870
Great northern arm of the transept window is decorated with stained-glass window with representations of Old Testament prophets, made to commemorate Johannes von Geissela choice for archbishop of Cologne of 1850, the work of Friedrich Baudri from 1856 reconstructed from the partial destruction of war in 1965 and 1990, large window west facades are decorated with stained glass windows from 1877 made by Carl Julius Milde from Lübeck. In the lower part there are some good presentation of the Bible (such as Good Samaritans), and bad deeds (including the murder of Abel), compiled separately in left and right. The quintessence of the content and composition of the cycle is stained on the top part of the Last Judgement.
Modern stained glass windows.
The team creates the twentieth century stained glass including Children stained glass window in Cologne, the northern arm of the transept, built by contributions of children destined for the maintenance of the cathedral from the devastation of war, showing some scenes from the Bible with children; stained glass window dedicated to Pope Pius XII, the work of Wilhelm Geyer, 1956 Both teams have a stained glass historyzującymi forms. Quite a different character has a great window of the south transept arm of 11.263 squares, each with a dimension of 9.6 x 9.6 cm. Squares are compiled on the basis of design by using a special computer program that randomly compiled 72 colors. The designer made in 2007, the work is Gerhard Richter.