Futurism (Latin futurus – future) – Avant-direction in culture (especially literature), who was born in Italy in the early twentieth century. The idea of futurism was „looking into the future”, rejecting the past and tradition. Futurism in his manifesto proposed the spontaneous annihilation of the academy, libraries and museums, guilty in his view, the maintenance and perpetuation of an outdated culture and the infirm, and therefore harmful and dangerous. Futurists took possession of the full realm of aesthetics. They believed in the prophetic role of the artist, whom they considered the true spiritual guide and demiurge of a new społeczeństwa.Koniec the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth time that the technological revolution – the rapid development of industry and transport. Continued to extend the rail network, was constructed plane and car. Created a number of inventions such as electricity, telephone and video. Dynamizował world and transformed the hitherto unprecedented pace. Appeared in the cult of science and technology, full of optimism convinced of the enormous possibilities of man and the idealistic belief in the development of humanity and its glorious future.
Futurism was born in Italy as an avant-garde literary and antytradycyjny direction, characterized by intransigence in the proclamation of an artistic revolution. The term „futurism” had indicate that the direct participants in this movement of thought towards the future, discarding all remnants of the past as inhibiting the development of ballast. The sharp attack on the futurist tradition, museums and antique was historically and psychologically understandable. Italy has a couple of centuries are not counted in the art. Lost their dominant position at the end of the seventeenth century for France.
In the early twentieth century, Italy could only glare to shine like a gigantic former glory, deserted Pompeii. In this situation, young artists have decided to overcome apathy, create new values out of the shadow of history. Despite this, however, appealed to his ideals Risorgimenta.W 1909 years the poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti and painter Umberto Boccioni Futurist Manifesto, first announced in the Paris newspaper Le Figaro, in which formulated in 11 points towards the main objectives designed to bring cultural revolution
1st We want to sing the love of the hazard, the practice of energy and daring.
2nd The basic elements of our poetry will be courage, audacity and revolt.
3rd So far, literature full of praise inertia meditation, ecstasy, and sleep, but we want to extol aggressive movement, feverish insomnia, fitness step, a risky jump, slapping and fist.
4th We declare that the splendor of the world has been enriched by the beauty of speed. Race car with the trunk zdobnym in thick pipes and hoses of buchającym breath, red-hot car, which looks like a speeding bullet is more beautiful than the Nike of Samothrace.
5th We want to sing in honor of the man holding the steering wheel, the ideal axis intersects the ground, which in turn launched moves along its orbit.
6th Necessary that the poet takes the efforts of the enthusiasm, brilliance and intelligence to foster an enthusiastic fervor of the original elements.
7th Only the struggle is beautiful. Masterpiece is just what is aggressive in nature. Poetry must be a violent assault on the unknown forces has forced them to lay humbly before man.
8th We are at the very tip of Cape ages! Yesterday the dead time and space. We live now in the absolute, we have created is gone forever, and the omnipresent speed.
9th We want to glorify war – the only hygiene of the world – militarism, patriotism, the destructive gesture of anarchist, the beautiful ideas which kill, and to preach contempt for women.
10th We want to destroy museums, libraries, fight moralism, feminism, and all manifestations of opportunistic and utilitarian cowardice.
11th We will sing in honor of the great crowds rough work, pleasure, or rebellion, multi-colored and polyphonic wave of revolution in modern cities, vibrant arsenals and factories at night under the glow suddenly lit up by electric moons in honor of ravenous stations, hoses, which the mound, factories hung on clouds on a string houses, bridges leaping like a gymnast on the sun-lit diabolical edge of rivers, adventurous steamers węszących after minded, iron horses harnessed to a long tube and in honor of the gliding flight of airplanes, the propeller flutter like a flag and noisy applause as the enthusiastic crowd. 
After World War futuristic frenzy has run out, they went toward the foundation of fascism. The Italian Futurism had spread to other countries. The founder of Futurism, and the man with the greatest influence on him was the Italian poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The movement was started futuristic manifesto, published on February 5, 1909 r on the pages of the newspaper La Gazette dell `Emilia, in an article later reprinted in the French newspaper Le Figaro on 20 February 1909 The new movement soon joined by painters Umberto Boccioni, Carlo Carrà, Giacomo Balla, Gino Severini and composer Luigi Russolo.
Marinetti eagerly expressed his contempt for all things old, especially political and artistic traditions. „We do not want any part of the past,” he wrote, „we, young and strong Futurists!”. Futurists admired the speed, technology, youth and brutality, inventions: car and plane and the industrialized city, everything that represented the technological triumph of mankind over nature. They were also staunch nationalists. They rejected the cult of the past and all imitation, praised originality, „no matter how bold, no matter how brutal, is proud to announce the” anointed madness „, defined as unnecessary criticism of art, had revolted against the harmony and good taste, removed all themes and subjects used in the past art and praised the study.
Futurism was a frequent feature of the publication of various manifestos and the Futurists (mainly led by Marinetti) draw them on various subjects, including painting, architecture, religion, dress, or preparing meals. This was mainly intended to explain the creative practice, and in order to gain broader zwolenników.Tym the futurists engaged in publishing and increased propagandową.Futuryzm adopted especially in pre-revolutionary Russia. Russian Futurists were not a homogeneous group: some are due to the symbolism and aestheticism – egofuturyści, among them is mentioned Szerszeniewicz Vadim, Igor Siewierianin, Anatoly Marienhof. The second theme – kubofuturyzm – he was firmly opposed to symbolism and estetyzmowi: Vladimir Mayakovsky, David Burliuk, Wielimir Khlebnikov. The first collective manifestation kubofuturystów was a book titled The pond Judges printed on toilet paper in 1909.
The first manifesto of the program was an article titled Cheek universal taste. The authors of this manifesto attacked not only the symbolism, but also the classics: Dostoevsky, Tolstoy. Speeches kubofuturystów and their methods of propaganda very reminiscent of the Italian Futurists: provocative instance, noisy life, the atmosphere of scandal.
After the revolution of the Futurists adopted a neutral stance, and some hostile. Group of Mayakovsky led a revolution took with enthusiasm. His death in 1930 marked the end of futurism in Russia.
Impetus to the flowering of Russian Futurism established Italian Futurism, Russian, however, make this area differed significantly from the Italian. The success of direction proved to be so large that about 1,910 years the Russian left-wing artists and art critics have denied that the Italian Futurism had any significant impact on his Russian counterpart. Three major Soviet specialists from the Russian avant-garde, Nikolai Khardzhiev, Evgeny and Dmitry Kovtun Sarabianov argued that futurism is not sought specific changes to the Russian visual arts. Khardzhiev wrote that Painting futuristic in Russia did not exist, but individual samples may Kazimir Malevich, Natalia Goncharova and Rozanov Olgii contrasted with the fact that cubism influenced the young Russian artists almost from the moment in which began to exist. Evgeny Kovtun put opposite each other and the Italian machinizm organicyzm, that his Russian counterpart. Dmitry Sarabienov also inclined to umniejszaniu impact on the Russian Futurist art. Should be noted that term „Russian Futurism” contains a lot of meanings. In the early twentieth century, the word „Futurism” was used in the context of the offensive to establish any kind of modernity in all forms of visual art, opposing canons born during the Renaissance, whether it was the symbolism, naturalism or realism. Ok. 1913, when the modern avant-garde was the largest bloom, the Russian word „Futurism” determined what we know today as the Russian avant-garde. Consequently, the name of „Russian Futurism” does not refer to the whole set so stylistically, as in the case of Italian Futurism. The term „futurism,” the style was born out of wedlock child. This movement was a shock, „heterogeneous aspirations without a single orientation,” and its main feature was „negative współwyznawane objectives.”
The first manifesto did not contain positive the vision of art, which is a futurists tried to make later in the Technical Manifesto of futurist painting. The latter expressed dedication to „universal dynamism”, which was to be directly represented in their works. Real objects do not exist separately from each other. Is also not separated from its surroundings. „Sixteen people around you in a moving bus is at the same time one. There are no traffic is moving at the same time. … The bus arrives in mijane houses, and they throw themselves on the bus, with him firmly in a ”
Painters Futuristic slowly develops its own style and range of topics. Between 1910 and 1911 used the technique Dywizjonizmu, breaking up the light and color to a field of points and lines, which, when first used by Giovanni Segantini.
Poland, where it reached the futurist program was an underdeveloped country, agriculture. Futurists in Poland is worth the advancement of civilization and progress. They hit with their program on deaf ears. Rebuilding the Polish situation has shown that futurism assumed here a case of: after the initial zachłyśnięciu international standards, there has been adaptation to Polish conditions. The pioneer was George Jankowski, also used the form name: Yeży Yankowski, author of the collection of poems and prose Fri Tram back street (1920 original spelling of the title.) The period of prosperity and expansion was due years from 1918 to 1923. Prowokacyjność, futurist dynamism of the Polish culture open to new trends, wiping the way other avant-garde movements. Were the main centers of Warsaw and Krakow, arose Kraków.W futuristic clubs: Under the barrel-organ (1919), Nutmeg (1921). In June of 1921 years of Bruno Jasienski edited and issued a four-page letter „JEDNODŃUWKA FUTURYSTUW Polish futurist manifestos issued emergency for the entire Polish Żeczpospolitą” containing, inter alia, „Manifesto on natyhmiastowej futuryzacji żyća”, „Manifesto on ortografji phonetic”, „Manifesto on the poetry of futuristic” and „Manifesto on art criticism.” This text contains jednodniówka by Bruno Jasienski, Anatol Stern, Stanislaw Mlodozeniec and Titus Czyzewski. Klara was printed in the Federal Printing Krakow, ul. Mikołajska L.13, under the management of J. Dziubanowskiego. In 1921, in Warsaw and Krakow spent edited by Stern magazine and Cotton Suppose the bżuhu. Jednodńuwka futurystuw (futurists, criticized, and broke the rules of spelling, and grammar), which contains three manifestos: Manifesto of the immediate futuryzacji life manifesto on poetry, and futuristic manifesto on art criticism. It also presented his works Polish Futurists Bruno Jasienski, Stanislaw Młodożeniec, Titus Czyżewski.W Warsaw futurist group led by Anatol Stern and Aleksander Wat. They seemed to collective publications. In 1918 they announced a manifesto-flyer „Yes”, which is due in its symbols and declarations launched Polish Futurism. Stern and wool poems appeared in the Futurist manifesto knife in my stomach. Warsaw Environment futurists and people associated with the avant-garde art was centered around the magazine New Art (1921-1922), and then around the Almanac of New Art (1924-1925). Very extravagant of futurists often ended in scandal, bijatykami or police intervention. In his works attacking the former authors, sending them to the museum staroci.Futuryści aggressively attacked the cultural heritage. Treat the tradition as a „hateful brake, which inhibits creative freedom. In his aggressive speeches comparing the Italian Futurists and the tradition of the past two spittoons. They believed that it was necessary to destroy the monuments because they are „more contagious than a damn.” Futurists encouraged the destruction of libraries, museums and monuments. Polish futurists proclaimed: „civilization and culture is chorobliwością in the trash, choose simplicity, vulgarity, cheerfulness, health, vulgarity, laughing;” to announce a big sale of old junk, sell for half the price fresh mummies Mickiewicz and Slovak. ”
Futurism was a feature of the violence, aggression, the cult of violence and war: „We want to glorify war, the only hygiene of the world.” Futurism was marked by activism, the momentum of the action. The aim was to overcome the legacy of inaction literature. They wanted to praise the adventure, courage, rebellion. Marinetti said: „The roaring car (…) more beautiful than the Nike of Samothrace.” Time in assessing the timeliness of work for 24 hours – tomorrow will be the work of antiquity, and so you need to quickly create. Rejected the heritage of Romanticism, psychologism, antropoceptyzm: Down with the psychological, metaphysical anxiety. Place on the matter as the only motive worthy of poetry – Marinetti wrote: „hot piece of wood or iron roznamiętnia us more than a smile and tears of women”, the pain of people is as interesting as pain lamps. Tytus Czyzewski advocated love electrical machinery, not women. The criterion of Futurism was to strive for originality, rejection of tradition. Declared war on fantasy and marzycielstwu.
Art put forward the demand for authenticity. They wanted to create a new poetic language, liberated from the constraints rules. They wanted to create a language pozarozumowy. Demanded the release of words from the bondage of reason „to free speech should be tormented and tortured the tyranny of thought, you should create a universal language pozarozumowy where rządziłaby do not think in words, but the word – the sound would cover unknown and superior content.” The new language rejected prepositions, conjunctions, and especially punctuation. Used, inter alia, a new way of imaging involving the mutual penetration of the words and images to reflect the dynamism, the extravagant typographic forms, such as combinations of uppercase and lowercase letters, different colors of ink to print, font, broken into various geometrical shapes.
Futurism in the arts 
Artists futurists agreed that a source of inspiration of art should be modern, mechanical civilization is the beginning of the twentieth century with its exciting technical achievements. Artists should draw inspiration from the wonders of the modern world – the iron network of high speed rail, which wraps the Earth, the oceans and traverse transatlantyków aircraft which prują sky, the fight to conquer the unknown. Ancient art, art of the future of futurists opposed, capable to give dynamism of modern life, its pace and rhythm. Preached the cult of speed, momentum, machines. Heroizowali hectic bustle of city life. Enthusiastic and idealistic program of futurists interpret it as urbanization and mechanization of the future happiness of mankind. Art, according to futurists should draw inspiration from direct contact with the modern world. As part of this fascination with the aesthetics of the car technique, the true embodiment of speed, became a symbol of modernity.
One of the most important iconographic motifs, repeated in the works of futurist painters, was the city, its streets full of lights and advertisements, the scenery in which the moving crowds of people busy. Phenomenon familiar to train passengers and cars blending of images due to fast driving. Telegraph pole, placard, or a cow blend with the trees and clouds. Futurists who have had for the machine and the speed of almost religious devotion, wanted to be treated this mutual relationship, the interpenetration of images as a new way of looking at the world around us. attempted to reproduce the way of seeing, in which objects merge with his surroundings and become just streaks, forms distributed in space devoid of depth. Present a futuristic design is based precisely on this diluted form caused by speed. To achieve this effect, the painters used the pointylistów taken over from the breakdown of colors, Cultural Learnings of decomposition Cubist planes, as well as a photographic study of Marey and Muybridge. The ultimate result was a kind of cubist compositions enriched vividness of color and dynamics, are superimposed on its axis forming a dense grid of directional force lines and highlighting potęgujących impression of movement. Speed mixed with each other shapes, and the memory of a chain of links in the moments of the past and present. All of these images, shapes, images are futurists scraps of the same reality. This idea explains why some of their works resemble a kaleidoscope of images. The desire to show the movement will result in abstractions composed of vertical lines and colored stains, sub-complex geometry of intersecting planes and connecting. In the generalized theme of futuristic images were all forms of traffic and concrete and abstract. Futurists seek to emigrate the traditional way of portraying, transfer accompanying the dynamism and speed, and finally putting a clean kinetyczności. Painting futuristic, as opposed to the Impressionist analyzing one elusive moment, wanted to give a synthesis of all the moments and the changes which occur at a given time and space. In Futurist first appeared in its attempt to put in the painting of the fourth dimension – time. As a result, the next phase of stadium building movement occurred in the images at the same time, such as those imposed on his staff next film. Some artists associated with Futurism include: Giacomo Balla, Carlo Carrà, Luigi Russolo, Severini Gino, Fortunato Depero, Joseph Stella, Primo Conti, Ambrogio Casati Hugo Scheiber, Bela Kadar, Fernand Léger.
Sculpture and architecture [Edit]
U. Boccioni: „The only form of continuity in space”
The sole creator and theorist, futuristic sculpture was Umberto Boccioni. In his compositions defied academic tradition of fidelity to nature and history. In architecture, futurism expressed in visionary urban projects future Sant’Elii Antonio, regarded as one of the most prominent theorists of modern, functionalist urbanism beginning of the twentieth century. His designs appeared simple, functional, devoid of any decorations skyscrapers of concrete, steel, and glass.
Futurists are not enrolled in music history as great composers, but it proved to be inspirational to others. Music manifesto first formulated in 1910 by Francesco Pratella. He appealed to depart from existing scales and excel ćwierćtony, graduated to give up the rhythm. Pratella also composed futurist music for orchestra (1912) and opera with an aviator in the lead role (1914). The most important manifesto for music, art of noise is considered  Luigi Russola. Russolo constructed a futuristic complex orchestra of 27 instruments, which he called „intonarumori” , or „intonatory noise.” 2 June 1913 year in Modena Russolo and Ugo Piatti performed on intonatorach awakening of the city, meeting cars and airplanes. After the war, Russolo, acting mainly in Paris, constructed a new instrument, now called bruitorami (fr. bruit = noise, noise). His performances usually inspired hilarity, but made a revolution in the approach to sound and music in general . In the tradition of such futuristic relied John Cage, the creator of musique concrete Pierre Schaeffer and a team of The Art of Noise.
Theatre wished to be a reflection of such a life, so far as it understand Futurists: clippings perceived everyday reality coexisted with each other before the eyes of the viewer, not always related to a logical sequence of events and unity of action. Receive art association was to the game and require increased effort from the viewer. sought to abolish the division between stage and audience. Performances to synthesize contemporary life, were very short, for example in art Marinetti They are coming all the action was confined to nakrywania table by two people, the detonation Francesca Canqulli voting rozlegającego shot revolver in an empty decoration representing the empty dark street.
Impact on the culture.
Although Futurism was mainly Italian movement, played a vital role in the development of twentieth-century art. In Poland, influenced Formists. Futuristic ideas significantly influenced the art of film. The most intense period of activity ended with a futurist at the time of World War I, when the group broke up. Most of the artists moved away from that direction, taking in the twenties and thirties a more static art, abstract and even classicizing.
* Giacomo Balla
* Umberto Boccioni
* Anton Giulio Bragaglia
* David Burliuk
* Vladimir Burliuk
* Mario Carli
* Carlo Carrà
* Ambrogio Casati
* Primo Conti
* Tullio Crali
* Luigi De Giudici
* Fortunato Depero
* Nikolay Diulgheroff
* Gerardo Dottori
* Filippo Tommaso Marinetti
* Vladimir Mayakovsky
* Angiolo Mazzoni
* Aldo Palazzeschi
* Giovanni Papini
* Luigi Russolo
* Valentine de Saint-Point
* Antonio Sant’Elia
* Jules Schmalzigaug
* Gino Severini
* Mario Sironi
* Ardengo Soffici