Art

art is more than whole world for me

Louvre Museum (fr. Louvre, the Musée du Louvre) – a former royal palace in Paris, now a museum of art. One of the largest museums in the world, the most visited facility of this kind in the world. Is one of the major landmarks of Paris, is located on the right bank, within the First Quarter. The complex of buildings with a total area of 60.600 square meters are collections numbering about 35,000 works of art from the earliest times to the half of the nineteenth century, the works of world heritage with the most renown such as the stele with the Code of Hammurabi, the Nike of Samothrace, the Mona Lisa painted by Leonardo.

The museum is in the Louvre Palace (Palais du Louvre), known since the Middle Ages. At the end of the twelfth century, King Philip II ascended to the castle site. In the second half of the fourteenth century, Charles V of France made the royal residence of the castle. In the sixteenth century Francis I turned into this building in the monumental Renaissance chateau. In 1672, Louis XIV moved to Versailles, the Louvre while a rich collection of ancient works of art. In 1692, the edifice was the seat of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, and the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, in 1699 organized the first Academy Exhibition. During the French Revolution, the National Assembly issued a decree to turn a palace into a museum.

The museum was opened August 10, 1793, the exhibition consisted of 537 images, the lion’s share accounted for the confiscation of Church and royal. Because of the problems associated with the condition of the building the museum was closed for the period 1796-1801. Napoleon’s campaign received a big increase in collections, and most were from the collection of prizes in the areas conquered by the dictator after his defeat at Waterloo, the work was paid rightful owners. During the reign of Louis XVIII and Charles X and the Second Empire saw an increase collections which exceeded 20,000 works. Another increase in collections is a result of numerous acquisitions the museum and private collectors gifts of works of art. In 2008, the collections of the Louvre is divided into eight categories, each separate account for: Ancient Egypt, Ancient Near East, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Art of Islam, Sculpture, Painting, Crafts, Drawing and Graphics.

Louvre is one of the oldest and largest museums in the world. Located in the historic center of Paris – the right bank of the Seine, and the Rivoli street and the gardens of Tuileries Palace, and the church of Saint Germain l’Auxerrois. Louvre Museum is located on one line of the Champs-Élysées, entering into the composition so. axis of historical Paris. After the destruction of the Paris Commune and the destruction of the Tuileries Palace, the axis has been extended.

History of the Louvre as a museum building and do not constitute a fully integrated whole. However, the artistic consciousness of the French kings in the context of the Louvre has been the beginnings of the Gothic era, when Charles V of France continued on a large scale was started by Louis IX, the tradition of courtly art, known for his numerous artistic foundation, part of which is a collection of the Louvre. Royal Patronage in the arts play a priority role of the French, like the collecting of ancient works, preferred by almost all of Valois and Bourbon, with Francis I and Louis XIV at the head. Royal collections were prompted to open space for public art museum with works of ancient art which ultimately made during the French Revolution. Then the number of works by French expeditions increased in areas of ancient civilizations, and by the appreciation of the Louvre museum by private collectors, etc.

Louvre Palace (Palais du Louvre), which is the seat of the museum is going back to the twelfth century birth certificate. During the reign of Philip II Augustus built castle with the central donżonem to secure the north-west of Paris, where he was expected to attack the rival armies Kapetyngami Plantagenetami, who was then occupied most of western France, including Normandy. Fragments of the castle are visible in the basement, which are now archaeological reserve forming part of the exhibition on the history of the Louvre [2]. It is not impossible that the king built a castle on an earlier building defensive stroma [3].

In the fourteenth incarnation, after inclusion of the Louvre in the city precinct Charles V of France extended the castle transforming it into a residence, which is known for its thumbnail in the very rich hours of the Duc de Berry (miniature month of October). Memento of the foundations of the king are, among others statues of the royal couple adorning the entrance to the castle. During the reign of Francis I of 1546, the castle was rebuilt in the style of French Renaissance [4]. Francis has acquired a number of works of art which became the core of the museum also acquired in the work of Leonardo La Gioconda [5]. The latter artist was court painter Francis I. His successor, Henry II had received from Pope Paul IV, Artemis, a Roman copy of a deer, modeled on the Greek work Leocharesa. For the issue of the emperor commanded to erect statues called. Hall caryatids. During the reign of Louis XIV, the Louvre has ceased to function as a royal residence since 1682 which was the palace of Versailles, the Louvre has been taken over half of the eighteenth artystom.Około & nbsp; century monarchs was requested and offered to create a public gallery [8]. In 1750, Louis XV accepted and presented to the public exhibition, consisting of parts of the royal collections. Hall was opened for public viewing on Wednesdays and Saturdays. Presented in her works of ancient and modern including works by Andrea del Sarto and Raphael [9]. The creation of the Royal Museum was part of the political agenda of Louis XVI [8]. Charles-Claude Flahaut expanded the collection in 1776 also proposed to adapt the Grande Galerie in the exhibition hall which is a major part of the Museum of France [9]. In addition, numerous proposals have been given the adaptation part of the palace into a museum with a permanent exhibition, but none met with the approval of the French Revolution królewską.Podczas former royal palace was given to the public, now the Louvre became a museum. In May 1791, the National Assembly declared that the Louvre will be „a place to bring together all the certificates of arts and sciences.” [9] On 10 August 1792, Louis XVI was imprisoned, while the royal collections became the property of the nation. Due to the growing fear of vandalism, or theft at the hands of revolutionaries, of 19 August, the National Assembly announced the order for protection against any missed collections of French heritage. After the cessation of social revolts in October in order to „preserve the national memory ‚committee ordered the provision of the nation and the device sets ekspozycji.Inauguracja opening a museum that has received the Central des Arts Museum (Museum of Fine Arts Central) accounted for at Aug. 10, 1793, the first anniversary the end of the French monarchy. The public were given free access to three days a week, which was „perceived as a major achievement, and generally been appreciated [11]. Reports initially consisted of 537 & nbsp; images and 184 & nbsp; works of sculpture and decorative arts. Three quarters of the collections were confiscated by the revolutionaries, the good king and church [12] [13]. In order to develop the museum and the organization to grow and organize a collection, the authorities of the newly established Republic sacrificed 100.000 & nbsp; livres a year [9]. In 1794, the revolutionary armies of France, the Louvre began to be exported to Europe often works with the method of robbery and seizures, and in this way was brought, inter alia, Laokoon Group and Apollo Belvedere, in order to set up the Louvre as a museum and a „social character of sovereignty” [12] [14].

The first museum open days were hot, a great event, living artists have used in other areas, presenting even nieobramione work „from wall to wall, from floor to ceiling [12]. Due to the poor condition of buildings in May 1796 ordered the museum closed until further notice. In the twelfth anniversary of the Bastille on 14 July 1801, reopened the Louvre, whose collection arranged in chronological order, also arranged new lighting exhibition halls closely adapted to the needs of a museum.

During the reign of Napoleon I, the northern wing of the building parallel to the Grande Galerie uposażać began in the works from the collections of the French troops looted museums and private collections [15]. Following the Egyptian campaign in the years 1798-1801, Napoléon appointed museum director Dominique Vivant Denon. As a tribute to the dictator called the museum „Musée Napoléon” in 1803, the museum halls in the form of booty brought paintings of Spanish, Austrian, Dutch and Italian [16]. After the French defeat at Waterloo, works of former owners applied for a recovery of their losses. Administration Louvre adopt a negative claim, moreover, the lion’s part of the collection was evacuated and hidden in private collections in the museum authorities and officials. In response, affected by the Napoleonic campaign of state posłały their emissaries to London for their support and the possible intervention of the British in France. Finally, the Louvre has adopted the law of foreign countries and the lion’s share of the spoils back to their own place, but not all [16] [17]. Among the works that gave Napoleon I was awakened by the kiss of Psyche, Cupid, from 1787, sculpted by Antonio Canova [18].
Dining room in the Apartments of Napoleon III
Bourbon Restaurant and Second Empire.

In the Restoration period (1814-1830), Louis XVIII and Charles X enriched the Louvre for a further 135 works of contemporary value of 720.000 francs. Highlight was the acquisition by the Louvre Venus de Milo. Royal patronage, however, focused primarily on the restaurant of the palace at Versailles, the Louvre which has suffered in relation to other Parisian investment. Once you have created the Second Republic in 1848, the new government has invested two million francs for the maintenance of collections and the building, ordered the completion of work on the Apollo Gallery, Salon Carré, and the Grand Gallery [19]. On December 2, 1851, the president of Napoleon III in 1851 made a coup d’état, establishing a French Empire. In the years 1852-1870 as a result of economic growth of France, the museum was enriched by a further 20.000 works, and the Pavillon de Flore. Grande Galerie was converted into a design by architect Louis Visconti and Hector Lefuel.W era of the Third Republic, despite a weakening state as a result of consequences of losing the Franco-Prussian War, and then struggles during the Paris Commune (planned to destroy the Louvre), the Louvre collections grew through purchases and donations. Operated by Friends of the Louvre Museum Society (Société des Amis du Louvre) offered an image of Gothic Master of the Avignon Pieta known as the Pieta of Villeneuve-les-Avignon. French Expedition operating in the Aegean region in 1846 discovered the famous Nike of Samothrace, which exhibited at the Louvre until after restoration in 1884 [20]. With spectacular events must note the acquisition of more than 7,000 works from great private collections such as the Campana collection, Durand, Salta, and Drovettiego. In addition, acquired 389 works of art from the Collection Lacaze, with works such as Rembrandt Bathsheba in the bath. [20] In 1881 he founded the Ecole du Louvre museum educating employees.

August 21, 1911 was a notorious theft of the Mona Lisa, which made the Louvre employee, Vincenzo Peruggia, hid under the guise of work, amounting to them after the closure of the museum [21]. The thief was arrested after attempting to sell the Mona Lisa to Florence’s Uffizi. [22] [23]. Before the work returned to the Louvre in 1913 was a series of exhibitions in several Italian museums.

Despite the victory in World War I faced a drop in the Louvre collections acquisition, however, account for the donation of the interwar period in the fall after Edmondzie Baron de Rothschild (1845-1934) copper-4.000, 3.000 and 500 drawings, illustrated books. This took place in 1935 came from paintings including St. Thomas Brush George de La Tour [24] [13].

Earlier, in 1931, when the Louvre was Mainini Institute, an academic, which brings together researchers from different disciplines, in 1932 the museum was modernized and divided into six sections: Art of the Ancient East, Art of Ancient Egypt, Art of Ancient Greece and Rome, Crafts ( which is subject to the Musée de Cluny), Sculpture and Painting.

On August 27, 1939, after two days of the most important collections of the package were sent from Paris. General Louvre evacuation lasted until December 28, 1939. Until the liberation of France from Nazi occupation, the Louvre was almost empty.
Modern times.

After the liberation of Paris and the end of World War II collections gradually restored by force of the 1932 subdivision, the department of Art in the Ancient East in 1945, the Islamic art section was separated, and the Department of Arts of Ancient Greece and Rome in 1945, isolated section of early Christian art. Musee de Cluny became an independent entity from the Louvre museum.

In 1983, President François Mitterrand presented a draft restoration of the palace and the creation of an underground complex below the main courtyard in order to facilitate tourist traffic. Implementation lasted until October 15, 1988 – when the ceremony opened the new entrance which is covered Contentious glass Louvre pyramid, which quickly became another landmark Louvre.

Currently, the Musée du Louvre in Paris brings together more than 380.000 35.000 works which form a permanent exhibition halls that occupy a total area of 60,600 square meters. [26]. The museum is housed archaeological, architectural details of all works of art (a sculpture, painting, drawing, graphic arts, crafts). Moreover, the Louvre houses a huge library, archives, conservation labs, scientific institutions of a research and teaching [13].

Louvre is the most visited museum in the world, about 15,000 visitors a day, 65 percent of them are tourists [27].

The museum is a frequent theme in literature and film, both in terms of art, like pop culture. 2,006 years before the Louvre meeting filmed for the movie The Da Vinci Code is based on Brown’s bestseller, Dani. After shooting shots of the Louvre museum earned $ 2.5 million [28] [29].

In 2008 he made further changes to the administrative and curatorial, collection of the Louvre is divided into eight departments: Art of Ancient Egypt, the Middle East (located art of Mesopotamia, Persia, and art akadyjską and Syrian), Ancient Greece and Rome (including the Etruscan and early Christian art), Art Islam, Sculpture, Painting, Crafts, Drawing and Printmaking.
Chronology [edit]
The history of the building.

* 1190 – the assumption by King Philip II of France the first of the castle as a fortress of defense against Viking raids
* 1546 – King Francis I of France begins reconstruction of the castle in the palace, due to the expansion of the city castle lost its defensive function. Medieval west wing was demolished and replaced by a Renaissance building designed by Pierre Lescot, and finished by Jean Goujon. The reconstruction was also continued by his successor Henry II (reigned 1547-1559)
* 1566 – Charles IX built the first level of the small gallery (Petite Galleries)
* 1595 – Henry IV begins building the great gallery (Grande Galerie). Construction was completed in 1608 [30].
* 1625 – Louis XIII takes the further expansion of the Louvre in accordance with the plans arising during the reign of Henry IV.
* 1672 – Louis XIV moved the royal seat of the Louvre to Versailles
* 1692 – Louis XIV, the decision seems to create a gallery of ancient statues in the Salle des Caryatides.
* 1791 – French Revolution, the National Assembly shall decide on the transformation of the Louvre museum.

History museum.

* Aug. 10, 1793 – The first exhibition open to the public (Museum Central des Arts)
* 1798 – collections grow the resources of the republic of Venice and the Vatican
* 1803 – Museum is renamed the Musée Napoléon
* May 1, 1847 – Europe’s first exhibition of Assyrian art created in the northern wing of the Cour Carrée.
* May 1871 – the last days of the Paris Commune, the revolutionaries planned the destruction of the Louvre. Reports have been saved thanks to a subscription headed by Florian Trawińskiego, manager at the time of culture and art department, the Paris Commune – along with trusted employees museum emptied barrels of kerosene in the halls of the museum apart and filled it with water. Revolutionaries, however, led to the destruction of the Tuileries palace.
* 1983 – President François Mitterrand, submit a proposal to renovate the palace, the transfer of the Ministry of Finance and the creation of an underground complex below the main courtyard.
* 15 October 1988 – the opening of the new entry into the main courtyard, which covers the Pyramid of the Louvre.
* 1993 – completion of the second phase of the project – an underground shopping arcade in the main node is Inverted pyramid.

Etymology.

Polonized Louvre version is the original name of the Louvre where the source is uncertain, there are several hypotheses, the first of them refers to the size and wealth-Dec wieczego castle (from the French L’Ouvre, a masterpiece), the second involves the location of the castle on the site of the former oak ( from the French Rouvre – oak) and a third, according to Larousse, means wolf down (from the Latin: lupus, Gallic: Lupara-wolf).
The structure of the museum.

Today the Louvre is divided into three sections corresponding to the spatial layout of buildings trójdzielnemu. The starting point is located below the Hall Napoleon’s glass pyramid. Are located there, information, ticket counters, cafes, boutiques, gift shop and entrance to the three pavilions which are:

* Sully, which includes the oldest preserved buildings clustered around the palace Cour Care – the inner courtyard.
* Denon, the southern wing of the palace situated on the banks of the Seine.
* Richelieu, north wing of the palace situated on the street of Rivoli.

Sully Pavilion, dedicated Maximilienowi de Béthune de Sully (1560-1641) – is opening an exhibition on the history of the Louvre, then archaeological reserve with remnants of the medieval castle of Charles V and the transition to the ground opening an exhibition of Egyptian art, which is located within the ground floor. In addition, on the ground floor exhibition Departments of Ancient Middle Eastern Art (Art of Iran and the Levant) and the Art of Ancient Greece, Etruria and Rome (Greek art). On the first floor of a continuation of the Egyptian and Greek collections (przedklasyczny period, and collections of pottery and terracotta). In addition, the Department of Decorative Arts exhibition. On the second floor is part of the Department of Painting – a collection of French painting from the seventeenth to the nineteenth century.

Pavilion Denon, Dominique dedicated Vivantowi, Baron Denon (1747-1825) – in Egyptian przyziemiach houses collections from the Roman period and the pre-classical Greek art and sculpture by European XI-XVI century with the works of German, Spanish and Italian at the head. On the ground floor sculpture of Europe XVII-XIX century, collections of Etruscan and Roman art. In the western part of the exhibition of works of art created in Africa, Asia, Oceania and the Americas. On the first floor gallery with the insignia of Apollo koronacyjnymi Bourbon, next to the staircase with the Nike of Samothrace. Denon occupy the remainder of the galleries of Italian paintings of Spanish and French (large works). The second floor Denon does not fit any regular exposure.

Pavilion Richelieu, dedicated to Armand Jean Richelieu (1585-1642) – located in the basement of an exhibition of French sculpture, whose main part is located above the ground floor. Space occupies the eastern section of Ancient Middle Eastern Art (the art of Mesopotamia and the Levant). Richelieu, first floor of the pavilion is fully operated by the Department of Decorative Arts (French and European works from the Middle Ages to the nineteenth century). On the second floor of the Department of Painting exhibition, paintings of France and Germany XIV-XVI, the Netherlands XV-XVI century, the seventeenth century the Flemish and Dutch paintings, in addition nineteenth century European painting (mainly Germans).
Collections.

Musée du Louvre contains more than 380.000, of which about 35,000 are presented works of art. Collections are divided into eight sections [32].
Stela Naramsina
2254-2218 BC, the
Department of Arts of the Middle East.

Department of Arts of the Middle East is the second latest on the Department of Islamic Arts section of the Louvre, the first sets started to be compiled since 1881, and the collection extends to this day. The collections provide a broad overview of the certificate of the ancient civilizations of the Middle East, the oldest civilization of the last period before the expansion of Islam in the areas of the Levant, Mesopotamia, and Iran. The development of Middle Eastern art collections due to intensive research and archaeological expeditions, explorers and operated such scholars as Paul-Émile Botta, who in 1843 discovered the relics from the reign of Sargon II, the first residue from the royal residence in Khorsabad, such as a gateway with carved hybrids whether the reliefs with representations of the royal procession [33] [34]. Findings became the starting point for the creation of Assyrian Culture Museum, which was the nucleus of the present Department [33]. The museum displays a rich collection of works related to Sumerami, monuments of the city of Akkad, including works such as the Stele of Vultures Eanatuma ruler of the city from 2450 BC Lagash Stele of victory or founded by King Naramsina Narama-Sin, the Akkadian king, in honor of the victory over the Zagros Lulubejami. Discovered in 1901, amounting to 2.25 m. The height of stele with the Code of Hammurabi is the most precious monument in the history of Babylon. The Iranian monuments stand out among others The head of the funeral monuments of the Archaic period and include Persian painted frieze of the presentation of Archers of Darius I.

Department of Arts of Ancient Egypt.
This chapter contains over 50,000 works of [37] dating from 4.000 BC to the fourth century AD, the heritage of civilization, living in the delta and lower valley of the Nile [33].

Collection of Egyptian art in the Louvre stands out but the largest such collection in the world with your character review, it covers all the historical era of Ancient Egypt, Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, the New Kingdom, Egypt, in the era of the Roman Empire, the Ptolemies, Copts and Byzantium [33 ].

The starting point for the development of the harvest was a collection of royalty but even during the Napoleonic collections have soared, thanks to Napoleon’s expedition expeditionary with Dominique Vivant, later director of the Louvre [37].

Since then, through extensive research and archaeological discoveries of Egyptian collections increased. Jean-Francois Champollion, Egyptologist, discoverer of such Rosetta Stone, launched a campaign to acquire works of art, including three major collections: Durand, Salta and Drovettiego, counting more than 7,000 artistic products. King Charles X has ordered a decree to set up a special section covering the Egyptian collections, which continue to rise, inter alia, through acquisitions Augusta Mariettego, the founder of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. Mariette, conducted numerous discoveries in Memphis and Saqqara, which resulted in such Sitting Scribe discovery [37] [38].

„Guarded” by the Great Sphinx in about 2000 BC, a collection of Egyptian art collection is housed in 20 exhibition halls. There are paintings on papyrus, mummies, painted sepulchral stelae, tools, clothing, jewelry, games, musical instruments and military [37] [33].

Examples of the Archaic period, and include the Old Dagger Gebel el-Arak from around 3400 BC, seated scribe, and the head of King Djedefre. Art of the Middle Kingdom, „known for her works and statues of gold, which is characterized by a certain idealization of the figure exemplifies the slate and wooden Amenemhatankh Ofiarujący. Art of the New Kingdom and Coptic art represents, inter alia, Neftydy statue of the goddess and the goddess Hathor present sandstone that are testimony to the wealth and prosperity of the New [33] [38].

Nike of Samothrace (winged Victoria), marble, about 190 BC
Department of Arts of Ancient Greece, Etruria and Rome.

Department of Arts of Ancient Greece, Etruria and Rome presents works of art in the Mediterranean basin dating from the Neolithic to the sixth century AD [39]. Scope of collections include relics from the period cykladzkiego the fall of the Roman Empire. This part of the oldest collections belonged to the royal collection, some of them were acquired by Francis I of [33] [40].

Initially, the scope of the set hovered around the sculpture in marble, with the „Venus de Milo” on its head. Many works such as „Apollo Belvedere” came during the Napoleonic campaign, but after the Congress of Vienna lion’s share of booty has been recovered rightful owners and museums. In the nineteenth & nbsp; age, purchased from the Collection of Greek works of Durand and the French National Library, mainly paintings wazowego – ceramic vessels and bronze including „Borghese Vase [36] [39].

Archaic Period is represented by works such as jewelry and sculpture The sandstone Lady of Auxerre, from 640 BC, and Hera of Samos, about 570-560 BC [33] [41] Many figural sculptures in the Borghese Gladiator, are examples of the growing interest in human anatomy, proportion and beauty, emphasis on this took place after the fourth century BC A rich collection of Hellenistic art of the day, exemplifies the famous Nike of Samothrace (190 BC) and the Venus de Milo [40].

Antiquity closes a rich collection of Etruscan and Roman art. One example of Etruscan art, among others, sarcophagus of a married couple from the third century BC Testimony to the Greco-Roman artistic relationships are numerous Roman copies of Greek classical period, mainly from [39]. Roman art represents a rich collection of portrait sculpture, the busts of Roman rulers and dignitaries including Augustus, Tiberius and Agrippa and Annius verus, in addition to marble, bronze articles, such as the Apollo from Piombino.

Trunk, ivory, silver, Spain, 966
Department of Islamic Art.

Islamic art collections are the latest exhibition in the Louvre, with its wide range of „thirteen centuries and three continents.” [42] This exhibition presents the works of arts and crafts, as other arts such as sculpture or painting in the Islamic countries did not develop large-scale towards other cultures, they are works of pottery, glass, metal, wood, ivory, textiles and carpets, moreover, and miniature paintings. Count reports over 5,000 works. [43] The works of art stand out among others Pyxis of al-Mughira, the tenth century, a product of Andalusia; so. Baptistery of Saint Louis – engraved bronze bowl from the thirteenth or fourteenth century caliphate in the circle constructed crusaders (Lower Egypt), from the tenth century, the Shroud Jossego from Iran. [34] [44]. Moreover, such Szahnamena three parties – the epic poem with a set of pens Ferdousi written in Farsi and the Barberini Vase, a product of Syrian metal [43].
Anonymous French artist, Charles V and Jeanne de Bourbon, sandstone, past the fourteenth century Gothic facade decoration Louvre

Department of Sculpture includes works made before 1850 except for the sculpture, which is presented in separate sections [1945]. Due to the interest of monarchs forefront in the collection of ancient sculpture led, the work of Louis XIV moved to Versailles, then in 1824 moved back to the Louvre, along with sculptures of Michelangelo’s Dying prisoner and prisoner Muñeca [46]. Initially, collection contains about 100 works, the rest of the royal collection was in Versailles. In such a state was until 1847, then the Directorate Léon Laborde sculpture department a wealth of medieval art, including works such as the statue of King Childebert [47]. Collections originally subject to the Antiquities department, in 1871 the Directorate Louis Courajod acquired valuable works of sculpture of the French [48]. In 1986, all the works after 1850 moved to the Musée d’Orsay. As a result of the Grand Louvre project sculpture is divided into two sections; sculpture is presented in the French Pavilion Richelieu, the European sculpture in the Pavilion Denon.

Start a collection of French sculpture of Romanesque art from the eleventh century, including Daniel in the lion’s den and the 12th century Madonna and Child from the Auvergne. An example of Gothic architecture are numerous statues of the Madonna and Child statues and the tomb of Philip the Fair Jeanne d’Evreux, or life-size statues of Charles V and Jeanne de Bourbon. Examples from the sixteenth century, are Renaissance works of Jean Goujon, or Germain Pilon monument with urn on the heart of Henry II, from the Cross and the Resurrection, also unknown artist Diana Memorial Fountain. Examples of the seventeenth and eighteenth are the works of Étienne Maurice Falconet Amour Bathing and menaçant and obelisks François Anguiera. With such classicism works of Antonio Canova Cupid and Psyche at the head (1787) [46].

European sculpture, create works of authors such as Hoffmann, Tilman Riemenschneider, Gregor Erhart (Mary Magdalene), Johan Tobias Sergel, Adriaan de Vries (Mercury and Psyche) also include sculpted a bust of Cardinal Richelieu Gianlorenzo Bernini, also a number of anonymous works, mostly Romanesque and Gothic.
Thirteenth-century French stained glass window, depicting St. Blaise
Department of Arts and Crafts [edit]

Objets d’art collection includes works from the Middle Ages to the mid-nineteenth century. It builds on the former royal collections, and the church, including from the treasury of the Basilica of Saint-Denis, a selection of works taken from the graves of French monarchs and royal insignia in the coronation sword of the kings of France [49] [50] Among the crop of promising dishes include bronze and constructed in Pietra dura technique. Lion’s share of department creates Durand Collection at the Louvre which is from 1825, containing ceramics, enamels and stained glass, in addition to 800 articles sent Pierre Révoil. Subsequent acquisitions have taken place during the period of Romanticism, submitted numerous works of medieval and renaissance. Another was to give a collective asset Luwrowi Sauvageot collection of works numbering 1.500 votes. medieval and articles of pottery. In 1862, the museum collection was transferred Campana which is formed of gold jewelry and majolica mainly from the fifteenth and sixteenth century [50] [51].

Collections are presented on the first floor in the Pavilion Richelieu, and the Gallery of Apollo, so called by the painter Charles Le Brun, who graced this part of the Louvre on the order of King Louis XIV (Sun King). The exhibition opens Byzantine works of art, principally carvings of ivory triptychs of the tenth century Harbaville leader. Medieval art is created by scepter of Charles V the Wise, gilded Madonna and Child of Jeanne d’Evreux, articles of ivory and enamel [52] Examples of crafts of the Renaissance works of art are brown and Dejanira Giambologny Nessus and Flemish tapestries, and French among others Maximilian hunting. [49] Among the important examples from later periods include the Sevres vases from the collection of Madame de Pompadour and large apartments of Napoleon III [49].
Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa, oil on panel, 1503-1519, probably made while the artist at the court of King Francis I.
Department of Painting [edit]

The collection of paintings has more than 6,000 works dating from the thirteenth century to 1848 and is managed by 12 trustees caring for individual collections. Almost two thirds of works of art by French artists they represent, the rest works numbering over 1,200 works are by European artists. Italian painting are the most ancient collections of kings Francis I and Louis XIV, the other with the Italian works are the remnants of the collection of Napoleonic campaigns and the subsequent gifts and purchases. [53] [54] The collection of works of Italian Renaissance King Francis I acquired in the works of Raphael and Michael Angel, [55] which brought to the emperor himself Leonardo da Vinci [56] After the outbreak of the French Revolution, the Royal Collection has been fully adapted for museum purposes, the core collections of the Louvre. Subsequent works of art, primarily French dated after 1848 contained in the Louvre were divided and transferred to the Musée d’Orsay in 1986, works of French painting and the North are in the Richelieu wing and the Cour Carrée, whereas Spanish and Italian paintings occupy the first floor rooms the Pavilion Denon [54].

Early paintings represent the works of French Gothic panel painting among them the famous Pieta of Villeneuve-les-Avignon attributed Enguerrandowi Quartonowi; King John Good (ok.1360), the work of an anonymous author, probably the oldest portrait in Western painting, [57]. With a beautiful style represents the Holy Communion and the martyrdom of St. Dionysius. Modern exemplifies Louis XIV, Hyacinthe Rigaud brush, a wide series of paintings by Nicolas Poussin at the Four Seasons, Inspiration of the poet, Et in Arcadia Ego, the works of George de la Tour, trickster with an ace of diamonds and the penitent Mary Magdalene Works of classicism are Coronation of Napoleon, Oath of the Horatii, Sabinka brush Jacques L. David and Hammam, and the United odalisque Jean AD Ingres. Examples of Romanticism are monumental works of Eugene Delacroix, Death Sardanapala, Liberty Leading the People and the chef d’oeuvre Theodore Géricault The Raft of Medusa. Late Medieval North European paintings represent the works of Dutch and German: Gothic paintings by artists from Cologne (Master of St. Bartholomew, the Master of St Seweryn), Self-portrait with a flower of Nicholas Albrecht Dürer, Hieronymus Bosch’s Ship of Fools, The banker and his wife Massysa Quentin, and images of contemporary artists from Germany, Flanders and the Netherlands: Jan Vermeer Koronczarka and astronomer, numerous paintings by Rubens in the history of Marie de ‚Medici, the Archangel Raphael Rembrandt leaving Tobias, Supper at Emmaus, Bathsheba in the bath, quarter of a steer, in addition a number of landscapes, genre forward and still lifes.

Among the paintings are distinguished by the Italian paintings of the early and High Renaissance, including paintings by Andrea Mantegna (The triumph of virtue, Our Lady Victorious) and Giovanni Bellini. The largest collection of paintings from the oeuvre of Leonardo da Vinci in the Louvre is located in the Mona Lisa, St. Anne Virgin and Child, St. John the Baptist and the Virgin of the Rocks. Among the paintings by Raphael among others The beautiful gardener, Portrait of Baldassare Castiglione, St. Michael defeats Satan. Mannerism represent the works of Guido Reni Baroque primarily Carravaggia: Fortune Teller and the Death of the Virgin. Examples are the works of Venetian painting by Paolo Veronese in this monumental marriage of Cana, numerous paintings by Titian, among others Madonna of the bunny, Entombment and Thorns crown. [58] [59]
Three heads, Charles le Brun, France, pen on paper, 1671

Among the works from private collections as the greatest in the history of the Louvre is considered the La Caze collection, transferred in 1869 by Louis La Caze. The donor gave 584 paintings including works by French painters of Antoine Watteau in the lead. In 2007, the collection used in the huge exhibition dedicated to Louis La Caze, entitled „1869: Watteau, Chardin … entrent au Louvre. La collection La Caze.” [60]
Drawing and Graphic Arts Department.

Department of Drawing and Graphic collects works on paper. [61] The collection of such works was 8.600 based on drawings and prints from the Royal Collection (Cabinet du Roi), which has included the appropriations shall state, donations and purchases, including in 1806 purchased the work from the collection of 1.200 Fillipo Baldinucciego [62].

Collection of drawings and prints was opened to the public Aug. 5, 1797, with 415 works that were presented at the Galerie d’Apollon. Currently, collections are divided into three sections: Cabinet du Roi, the core section 14.000 of the graphic prints and drawings; Collection Edmond de Rothschild, to 40.000 prints, drawings 3.000; collection of ancient books and manuscripts of works consisting of 5.000. Some of the paintings are presented in the Pavilion of Flora, because of the weak strength of the material exposure is often mentioned.

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