Modernism, modern art, modern art called – the contractual period in the history of art, whose timing is determined from the ’60s Nineteenth century (in conjunction with Impressionism) to the 70s Twentieth century (conceptual). Modern art is strongly linked with the concept of modernism in philosophy and avant-garde phenomenon. The term modern art, as crystallized in the form used as the first Joris-Karl Huysman in 1883.
The concept of modern art is associated with new ideas and works of art, that return towards the deepening of reflection on language, art, artistic experiment, application of new techniques and materials, the belief in the depth of culture and technology, and above all with the idea of progress (linear development of art and history).
Modernist art is based on the attitudes of the Enlightenment roots, and so on rationalism, liberalism and the above-mentioned idea of progress.
Modernism in the narrower term, now rarely used sense, it means the art of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, see Secession (art). Shaping the basics .
The first direction in the art of serving as „modern” is Impressionism, including because of its inspiration photography – flirt with new technologies will become a characteristic ingredient of modern art. Impressionism also gave a high degree of autonomy of the color, the color no longer act as a servant to submit, the image has been released from the literary, or allegorical content, which is more about the image becomes a pretext for pure painting (color) investigations. Since the value of Impressionist works to be measured not by what shows, but as the present, the most important is the quality of formal means.
Much more scientific approach was characterized by a draftsman, then based on the most recent achievements in physics, optics and more specifically. Sami artists from this trade deadline fixed their creativity chromo-luminaryzm, painting light and color, which characterizes much better their efforts.
When you took over the baton neoimpresjonistach postimpresjoniści, which, despite the large differences between them, one can say that the shared desire to increase the autonomy of the image, separating him from imitating nature. You can also assign them inherited from the exploration of issues of color impressionism in painting.
A step further, though with radically different approaches, follow the Symbolists, who consider the image as separate from reality, self and explaining to itself, does not reflect anything other than subjective ideas of its creators. Broke away from the symbolism painting imitate nature even further than he did Postimpressionism, one of the symbolists, Maurice Denis, speaks often then quoted as saying: we must remember that picture, before it becomes a battle steed, naked woman, anecdote, or anything else, is first and above all, a flat surface covered with colors in a certain order. The Symbolists are opposed to the scientific concepts of art and further mechanization and the secularization of life, and mindlessly follow your art exists.
Although from the beginning, next to the new design, there were demands that modern art has taken themes of contemporary life, this is just the Art Nouveau artist brings a commitment to social issues, returning later many times in the avant-garde movements, to Joseph Beuys.
Information icon.svg Main article: Avant-garde (art).
Avant-garde movements of the early twentieth century, strongly influenced the modernist vision of art, created a new concept of art based on the experiment, new techniques, study the language of art, novelty and originality are supreme values, was also a characteristic disdain for tradition. Many courses have tried to create a new sensibility and new art, as far as modern times and modern man. Avant-garde art is combined with utopian visions of society, it is often politically involved (especially the left).
Information icon.svg Main article: avant-garde.
When the specter of war hung over Europe, many artists seeking refuge, first in London and later in the United States, where he also moves during the war, and after the center of world art. The term comes from the analogy of avant-garde postwar avant-garde trends of the pre-war (for example, conceptual art has shown several similarities to Dada.) After the horrors of war artists abandon the utopian visions, focus even more on an examination of the rules of art – the traditional artistic disciplines such as painting or sculpture are blurred, there are new – a happening, performance, environment. Enhances the dictation of originality, invention of a new formal structure of work is becoming the key motif. There is a tendency to continuously expand the area of art – to the final frontier – everything can be art, and – like say Beuys – everyone is an artist.
As outlined the concept of art can not grow forever, and after mastering the final consequences and wyeksploatowaniu all possibilities (in the form of conceptualism) had to step down – which provoked a thesis about the end of art – but art is not over, but some of its vision. It is time for postmodernism.
Modernism – a general description of currents in the architecture of the developing world in the years around 1918-1975, which consider not only the total departure from historical styles, but also from any styling. Modernist architecture was based on the assumption of a new creative method, which originates form, function and structure of the building almost entirely from existing conditions materialnych.Architekci modernist assumed that the beauty of the building is mainly from its functionality, and in any case, first of all must be satisfied the requirements of the function which should serve as an object. One of the main slogans of modernism was the maxim Sullivan Form follows function, which translates as a form follows function (or form follows function).
The importance was also calling for sentences of minimalism Mies van der Rohe Less is more (translated as Less is more) and Adolf Loos ornament is a crime. The building was a work of abstract. Any ornament was rejected.
The most famous modernist manifestos are five points of modern architecture, Le Corbusier and the Charter of Athens.
Modern Movement in architecture was not a single phenomenon and did not have a clear ideology. Within modernism, we can distinguish several trends, directions and architectural schools. The delineation between the various currents of modernism is unclear, for example, different critics use to mainstream the term functionalism of modern traffic or rationalism, bearing in mind, however, only so many reflections of the same phenomenon. The name of functionalism, often misused, it has a negative connotation while the technokratyzmem. Modernism, as a broader concept, includes both an objective over time is also a romantic modernism modernism, architecture that is closely related with the individuality of the creator. Within the wider ideology of architectural modernism is located in both the skeptical humanism (eg, Mies van der Rohe) and the radical communism (eg, H. Meyer).
Nazwa modernism comes from the French (and indirectly from the Latin) word for modernity, sets out the circumstances relevant to the modern mode of action and the form of being. As the current definition in the architecture to compete with the terms functionalism, now having generally narrower in scope, and rationalism, but which may also specify the entire rationalist tradition in architecture from the nineteenth century onwards. Historically, the term is also applied to modern architecture, which in a broader sense, however, also includes postmodernism. Precision, but rarely used synonym for modernism is a movement in modern architecture.
Modernism in architecture is not identical to the earlier time-varying and extreme ideological modernism in art and literature, which corresponds to the art nouveau architecture. By contrast, in Spanish we usually define as modernismo secession was in architecture.
Origins and sources of modernism
Modernist movement in architecture was not a single source, the first independently developed and very different ways in different countries of Europe and America.
Nineteenth century brought great development of art engineering, mainly linked to the introduction and mastery of new materials – iron and steel. From the 30s Nineteenth century arose the modern building structures (bridges, halls, greenhouses), whose form was determined by strict necessity. Although the designers did not have the usual ambitions of architecture, were later recognized as a truly progressive work. A prime example is Joseph Paxton’s Crystal Palace (1851). Architecture, distancing himself from the use of false materials, not only remained behind, but finds itself in a kind of opposition to the engineering and push forward the so-called. neostylom and eklektyzmowi. This can be seen in the railway stations of the period in which the necessary glazed steel platform rests historicist hall, a brick building of offices and waiting room. From here you can deduce the hypothesis that the two parts of the building were in contradiction. The recognition, appreciation and acceptance by the architects of progress in engineering and industry and their impact on the present belonged to the factors influencing the birth of modernism.
In big U.S. cities since the 70s Nineteenth century architecture began to arise about the characteristics of functionalism, particularly department stores in Chicago (the Chicago school). Also, the first skyscrapers in New York and Chicago from adopting cubic forms, almost hiding the steel skeleton.
In the UK, has developed Arts and Crafts movement, seeking to re-link the various arts and crafts through architecture. Exerted a great influence on the debate about architecture in Germany, but died in the middle of the first two decades of the twentieth century. In continental Europe, particularly in finding new and appropriate methods for the creative spirit of the time distinguished architects Henry van de Velde – founder of the school of arts and crafts in Weimar and Adolf Loos, whose buildings with flat facades and niezdobionych provoked protests in Vienna.
American architect Frank Lloyd Wright created in the late nineteenth century, many houses inspired by the exotic construction, mostly Japanese, but remained well under the influence of the Chicago School tradition and craft. Works great resonance Wright found primarily in Europe.
Around 1900, when Art Nouveau architecture flourished, lasting intense discussion in Europe about the role of architecture and architects in the world today. Was growing criticism of excessive ornamentation, and soon the use of ornament in architecture. The different perspectives also criticized the nineteenth century architecture, was adopted for granted the need for genuine, unadulterated plaster or paint materials (excluding, however, originally applied steel or reinforced concrete). Progressive architects have criticized the artificiality of mannerism or even secession. Many of them as models initially received the home country folk architecture and construction from the time around the year 1800, while others relied on identifying the properties of materials. First of all, in Germany and the Netherlands created the first buildings, which can be classified as modernist architecture. It should be kind to them, although having a fairly traditional decorations stock exchange building (1903) in Amsterdam, HP Berlagego. In Germany, founded in 1907 Deutscher Werkbund, an organization bringing together architects and other artists interacting with the industry and creating buildings based on the principle of functionality. In Berlin, Peter Behrens designed the steel-and-glass hall of AEG Turbine (1907), located in an urban context. The only ornament is a massive wall in the corner, redundant construction. Wroclaw acted Max Berg, the creator of reinforced concrete, from the interior of the proposed Centennial Hall (1913), and Hans Poelzig, the architect of many industrial facilities (eg water tower in Poznan), but also utilities. Simultaneously with the transformation of the architectural forms continued discussion about the relationship of architecture art and technology and the acceptance of mass production.
One of the landmark buildings were Fagus Shoe Factory by Walter Gropius in 1911, often referred to as the first modernist. The glass in her corner is devoid of structural elements. In 1914, Gropius designed the industrial exhibition in Cologne factory calibration of the glass facades, Bruno Taut Glass Pavilion and the crystalline shapes. These facilities have given birth to the legend of glass houses, the symbol of the future.
Flourished in the interwar period.
World War brings out the great destruction, including the development of technology (eg, aviation), and above all rapid social change, including revolutions. Hope for a better future as seen in the new society organizations, as well as in art, modernists allowed greater freedom of action, and stimulated the exchange of property. The economic situation of the first years after the war did not favor the construction of a large number of modern facilities, but the theoretical reflections on the architecture developed in Europe. Been widely presented only in sketchy form Sant’Elii projects, Mies van der Rohe and Mart Stam, which is a record rather than the utopian idea of a real building proposals. Important as forums for exchanging ideas received magazines, such as G or werkbundowski edited by Ch. E. Jeanneret, L’Esprit Nouveau and the Stama ABC. Among the members of the Deutsche Werkbund correspondence group to work glass chain (German: Die Kette Gläserne), through which crystallized the view of modernists to the objectives and directions of development of architecture. In Weimar-based college van de Veldego was Bauhaus, a school of crafts and architecture. In the Netherlands, acted abstract and formalistic De Stijl group of around Theo van Doesburg and Gerrit Rietveld. In Russia after the revolution came to the fore constructivists, combining visual idea of Suprematism with the latest technical possibilities.
Modern architects of the 20s inspired by modern art, taking its abstractness. Some of them, however, completely rejected the union of architecture with artistic activities, considering the task of architecture to fulfill the material needs of society. Others, like Le Corbusier believed that architecture becomes an art when you select the most beautiful of the formal potential of a fully functional solutions. In environments of modern architects generally believed that architecture should follow the modernity and fostered a new culture.
Around 1925 the modernists began to build ever-greater numbers of public buildings, especially the symbols of modernity such as cinemas and department stores, often older buildings have received a modern facade. Modernism became fashionable in the centers of large cities. In Germany, the Netherlands and France modernist housing estates built with flat roofs. At first they were small establishment, including several houses, and usually ridiculed by the then newspapers. Larger settlements that time is Estate-Horseshoe (German Hufeisensiedlung) Bruno Tauta in Berlin-Törten Britzu and Walter Gropius in Dessau (Dessau today). His first Modernist houses built Le Corbusier. Deutscher Werkbund exhibition organizes residential architecture in the Weissenhof in 1927, and later including WUWA exhibition in Wroclaw (1929) and Novy Dum in Brno (1932). Architecture and urban modernism associated with the ideas of democratization and social life egalitaryzacji (also with socialism and communism), but are faced with interest especially among the higher social classes.
In the United States in a style reminiscent of European modernism created by Rudolf Schindler and Richard Neutra, architect of Austrian origin, students Loos. In terms of formal style of modernism has become fully international, and its development took place simultaneously in all technically developed world. Johnson recognized this and Hitchcock, creating the term international style. Modernism of that period, however, was not a single phenomenon, and the similarity of the forms do not go hand in hand ideas and views of individual architects. Already in the early 30s modern architecture once again varied strongly, and there were overt disputes, although the boundaries between the political parties do not proceed along national borders. Around 1930 was dominated by the main current of international schools, but has stepped up its criticism of the functional and rigorously cubic architecture.
Consolidation environment modernists in the late 20th not only conducive to the publication and distribution of lively correspondence, but also defend against attacks from conservatives. To represent and promote the new architecture was created in 1928, CIAM, the international forum for architects, Le Corbusier centered. After taking power in Germany by the Nazis has become a major center for the development of modernist thought. In his group were discussed and codified rules for describing the creation of the new architecture. As a result of this work was, inter alia, Athens Charter.
Ripe postwar modernism.
A few years after World War II modernism in Western Europe and the U.S. reached a high degree of acceptance and popularity. He became a style of public buildings and settlements, symbolized modernity and democracy. The reconstruction of many European cities was carried out according to the principles of the Charter of Athens, the destruction of war was considered likely to introduce comprehensive reforms of their housing estates and public spaces.
In 1952 in France, Le Corbusier built his prototype of a large multi-family building, so called. Unité d’Habitation (residential unit) in Marseilles. At the Berlin exhibition building IBA (INTERBAU) in 1957 presented the new German and international construction as a modernist and democratic alternative to the architecture of the Third Reich and the emerging socialist-realist alley parallel wschodnioberlińskiej Stalin. About the humanistic message of modernism as a social project of architecture and ensuring healthy living conditions it was still not fully taken up seriously by architects (including Le Corbusier, Aalto and Niemeyer).
Founding of the city Brasilia to the draft Costa and Niemeyer, based on theoretical considerations, linear city, was the last great project of modernism and attempt a mature realization of his ideas, often regarded as a utopia.
Late modernism, criticism and decline of modernism.
Information icon.svg Main article: Late Modernism.
Criticism of conservative modernism of the items led to the current software in the 20s antymodernistycznych Twentieth century, however, they do not become a major threat to the development of avant-garde. At the time of dissemination (and spowszechnienia) modernism strength of ideological and aesthetic arguments, the authors significantly eroded.
Already shortly after World War II, despite widespread enthusiasm for the new architecture and urban planning, Alison and Peter Smithson warned of the dangers of strict szablonowego design. As the technocratic tendencies in modernism have become strong, expressed concern before zdehumanizowaniem architecture. Corbusierowski model of urban (city of skyscrapers surrounded by greenery) according Smithsonów led to alienation and isolation, and thus could lead to social pathologies, while one of the main ideas of modernism was the ideal community residents. The split between the traditional and the younger generation of modernist architects (eg, meeting for Team Ten) in the early ’50s not only led to the collapse of CIAM, but also to increased discussion of errors.
In the vicinity of London built at that time proposed by the municipal housing office design (eg Alton-East-West in 1954 and 1959 in Roehampton) characterized by the principles of the urban density (called Urbanity by density) and mixed development (mixed development) complex with both high-rise buildings and multi-family buildings and lower ranks. They became the model often imitated residential architectural practice in Western countries. In the vanguard of the world now find themselves architktury architects from English-speaking countries. English became the language in which you conducted an international architectural debate and criticism, it has replaced the previously used in the role of French and German. The architecture of this period there has been a return to natural and raw materials such as wood or stone. Various phenomena developing in architecture since the mid-50s, such as brutality, structuralism and metabolism are called collective determination of late modernism.
Since the mid-60s in the U.S. with the violent criticism of modernism began to appear postmodernists, accusing him of monotony, ignoring the needs of the user, especially separation of man from his cultural roots and allegedly innate environment. As a result, modernism quite rapidly lost favor in the eyes as criticism, and investors.
Neomodern and Docomomo.
Information icon.svg Main article: Neomodern.
The formal architectural splendor of postmodernism sparked in the late 80th still ongoing fashion the forms of buildings inspired by modernism, also came to the fore późnomodernistyczni architects who designed the still according to his assumptions. With the development of clean construction techniques many structural problems facing the first makers of modernism, can be fully solved. Neomodernistyczny and minimalist style usually acquire only the formal elements of modernism, cutting themselves off from the urban and social radicalism.
With the back there was interest in modernism, the need for protection and preservation of its most important works. To this end, an international organization founded Docomomo. The principle of Modernism, however, was not durability, and fit the realities of time and the requirements of technology and economics. Often it is retractable postulate that in the case of modernism is not a real work of building material and abstract design. Today, many modernist buildings undergoing a thorough renovation of the wide-ranging exchange of materials for more durable modern counterparts.
Features of the modernist building.
In contrast to historical styles and modern secession movement is not developed uniform forms of style and never posed such a purpose. There was a desire to avoid anything that could be described as formal features. The broad spectrum of ideological modernism include at least early in the development of some principles common to all traffic, and they do provide a distinguishing architecture created under its influence. The basic principle that guided the architects of modernism, was a sense of moral obligation to the community – urban planning, architecture and industry have to meet social mission, their task was to be democratic society and community education. The necessity for equitable sharing of living space and related assets, sought far-reaching optimization and economization. This made the rationalization and projection of the overall architectural form. It aims to have the new technologies, which readily escapes. The most important task of the modernists believed to provide decent housing population, which led to the focus on urban planning, understood as the planning of settlements.
As expected rational approach to the design, emerging forms of individual objects had to be the result of the functions and structures, and other boundary conditions. It is not difficult, however, can be observed in common for most formal modernist buildings. First of all, they relate to the disposal of the building space: light mass, avoiding symmetry. Some are a direct result of effective forms of exploration. These include some elements of codified by Le Corbusier: curtain wall, a free plan to split light partition walls, flat roof terrace, wide windows letting lots of light and very destructive nature, the assumption on the foundation pillars (piloti).
Many features were, however, was in protest against the artificiality of the nineteenth century architectural forms: cubic lush, disciplined use of any detail, large, flat and uniform surface elevation – white or pastel colors, the windows flush with the elevation and lack of internal divisions, use of raw materials (concrete and steel), extensive glazing staircases, and sometimes the entire facade. Others, such as the round window (or portholes oculusy), having only highlighting the nature of modern character styling.
The pain of formal orthogonal modernism coexist in sophisticated, complex abstract but yet functional shapes designed especially for facilities located large premises with a special character (performance hall, club). Many buildings are composed on the basis of skontrastowania regularly laid out for office or residential wings of the common parts of organically shaped, having the nature of an autonomous object.
In many modernist buildings, however, given the formal features does not exist, many are also listed buildings with features that can not be assimilated to mainstream modernism.
Modernism introduced to the architecture of the West plan to free (or free throw), which is the projection of stories are not divided into enclosed spaces. The space was defined by the freely distributed plane, poles, light fittings. The popularity of free-kick had several causes. On one hand, emphasized the alleged advantages of a universal functional space that gives a shape by a suitable arrangement of furniture and a few screens, the walls (or sliding), on the other hand appreciate the artistic merits of such an interior, made of changing the perspective.
Modernism to the newly formulated the concept of architectural space, replacing the closed and tightly defined, limited to specific interior spaces through symbolic links. spatial continuum – a string of space is only partially limited by the barrier construction. Inspired by the architecture of the Far East, sought to blur the contrast between the inside and the outside, caught the adjoining garden space to usable space inside the building and the inclusion of a building in the natural environment.
Also the use of flat roofs were variously motivated. The pursuit of functionality and at the same efficiency, were directed to dispense with sparsely used volume of the building. The possibility of the device on the roof terrace zazielenionego allowed better fixation of the building with nature. Above all, the flat roofs were manifestacyjny distinguishing modernity expressed by detachment from the archetype of the building (topped with a sloping roof), giving kubicznym buildings features an abstract composition and demonstration of the possibilities of modern technology. An example of the modernist flat roof and terrace seating is an avant-garde Warsaw Yellow Villa of 1936 by Romuald Gutt Busko street number 9 (Sadyba).
Shaping the development zones.
In contrast to previous periods of the most important task was to modernism, urban planning, and fosters economic health and comfort of residents of housing design, and not only the formation of public spaces and interior streets and squares.
Modernists propagated part of the various functions in the city (industrial, residential, commercial and administrative center), also depending on the topography and wind direction. Routes linking different parts of the city were not separate those parts, and the role of boundaries isolating them have green areas to play. Postulated easy access to recreational areas.
Modernism developed a number of contradictory trends in urban planning: limitation of urban settlements and the creation of satellites (Ernst May), the limited size, and development along the main axes of vital urban area. The resulting concept of star and linear cities (Le Corbusier). Also the height of buildings has been a contentious issue – many modernists protested against wieżowcom, seeing in them a solution inhumane, while others saw it as a symbol of modernity and the method of conservation of natural areas.
Most of the modernists, especially in the initial phase of the development of modern architecture, shared fascination with automotive and advantages of individual transportation. The proposed model city car, the car was the attribute of modernity, and its dissemination has become an argument in favor of erecting as modern homes. After World War II to increase the surface area devoted to communication and spatial relationships destruction caused debate about the need for a human city.
The center of the modern city was to be a separate service area, and sometimes also separated the administration of commerce and culture. Postulated the creation of pedestrian zones, large squares and parks in close proximity to the centers. The vast majority of architects accept the construction of skyscrapers in the centers, and other objects of large volume.
Great attention was attached to the illumination of the living areas of direct sunlight and ventilation urban system. Objects were located freely among the green or in-line arrangement assumed radical (linijkowy). Oblong buildings oriented in the north-south, with daily room oriented to the west, and the kitchen to the east, while communication was conducted in a circular direction transverse to the building.
In urban planning the later period (from 50s), architects departed from the schematic solutions toward a more humanistic considered free and organic composition, consisting of buildings of different height and often broken narysie (complex wave forms.) There was also renewed interest in shaping urban interiors.
Elected representatives of modernism.
* Alvar Aalto
* Peter Behrens
* Max Berg
* Marcel Breuer
* Gordon Bunshaft
* Le Corbusier
* Walter Gropius
* Hugo Häring
* Philip Johnson
* Ivan Leonids
* Pier Luigi Nervi
* Richard Neutra
* Oscar Niemeyer
* Hans Poelzig
* Adolf Rading
* Gerrit Rietveld
* Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
* Hans Scharoun
* Alison and Peter Smithsonowie
* Mart Stam
* Helena and Simon Syrkusowie
* Frank Lloyd Wright