Secession – European art style in the last decades of the nineteenth century and the first of the twentieth century, considered in the framework of modernism. The essence of secession was to strive for the unity of the stylish art by combining its activities in various areas, particularly arts and crafts, interior design, sculpture and graphics. The characteristic features are the Art Nouveau style: smooth, wavy lines, abstract, or vegetable ornamentation, inspired by Japanese art, free systems of composition, asymmetry, and linearism płaszczyznowość and subtle pastel colors.
In France, this style is called Art Nouveau, or Jugendstil in Germany Sezessionsstil, in Italy Stile Liberty Stile floreal or.
As an immediate time of the secession is considered the 80th year for the beginning – the 90th year XIX. It reached a mature form in the mid-90s the peak of popularity and opportunities in 1900 (World Exhibition in Paris). In the second half of the 90s style spread throughout Europe, which resulted in the training of national varieties stylu.Secesja is mainstream, which gained a large number of names. Polish Art Nouveau period (such as the Czech SECESE) comes from the terms and Sezessionsstil Sezession used in Austria for the determination of this trend, but also the association, founded in 1892 in Munich (and later Vienna, and Berlin). The word was derived from the Latin Sezession secessio – separation in withdrawals.
In France, Art Nouveau became known as Art Nouveau (New Art). Term is probably used first by Henry van de Velde in his essay Deblaiment d’art (1894), but popularized it opened a year later, living in Paris named Solomon Bing L’Art Nouveau. The term is in Polish literature is determined primarily a French variety of secession, however, is sometimes also used for other countries. The French term is also commonly used in Anglo-Saxon countries.
In Germany, coined the name „Jugendstil”, taken from the Munich magazine „Jugend” (Youth). Currently, under the name of this means mainly the German (or Austrian), a variety of secession.
The basic features of Art Nouveau it is widely accepted characteristic of the line – flexible, smooth and busy and rich ornaments, particularly phyto-animal. Undoubtedly it is right to say, however, secession was a phenomenon more complex and diverse, nieograniczającym only to these two trends. In addition to trends in flower and organic (occurring especially in Gallé Nancy), the current trends were more geometric and less ornamental (eg Austria) or abstract and structural motifs which are highly transformed organic, creating an almost abstract forms and the structure of the object is emphasized (France, Belgium – for example, Guimard entrance to the Paris metro.)
Secession, striving to create a new style and break with historicism, dissociated itself from the previously used traditional architectural forms, such as ancient orders and wanted to novelty and innovation, using new methods of approach, new materials, construction methods and techniques. Artists wanted to cover it all areas, from painting, sculpture and architecture to furniture, ceramics, jewelry, clothing and fabrics, thereby ennobling applied arts and decorative arts and creating works of a decoration. This ozdobność obtained – as before – with the ornament, but a new, longer nieodwołującego ancient meanders or PALMET, but built on the basis of plant (whether exotic or very common), and animal motifs.
Characteristic measure, which used artists, was mentioned already flowing. According to one theory, is taken from the world of plants: stems, flagella, etc., according to others the opposite was true – it is the passion for the curving lines of Art Nouveau provoked interest in floral motifs. Another measure was a flat spot, which meant the abandonment of the effects of illusionist space and suggestions for using existing methods: linear and aerial perspective and chiaroscuro. Artists would particularly emphasized the department paintings often took the form of a narrow, tall rectangles, used the themes and soaring vertical (slender figures, long stalks of plants), emphasized the vertical elements. Was also characteristic of asymmetry and the colors: mostly clear, delicate, such as white or lilac.
Sources and evolution of style
Roots of secession were extensive, it had many precursors and powerful ideological background. Previews typical forms and elements of it appeared in England and France well before the blossoming style.
The end of the nineteenth century was marked by a particularly strong desire to be free from academic qualities, driven by the approaching new century and the desire to reform. Some artists treat with contempt the widespread phenomenon of historicism, regarded by them as a mediocre imitation of old styles. They wanted at all costs to create a new style. It was important to strive for the unity of the arts to which the call already, even in the Pre-Raphaelite circle, who were involved in many areas of art. Technical development has presented the question of contemporary artists place the machine in the art. William Morris and John Ruskin called for handicraft, and not the product of the factory, and their devoted followers, therefore, handicraft, creating works of expensive and thus inaccessible and ultimately incompatible with the desire to spread beautiful objects. However, most artists had no fears secession against the machine – content with the secession of the production machine, but do not opt out of handicrafts .
That Morris and his Arts and Crafts movement designed to make everyday objects of beauty and craftsmanship to restore the rank of art played an important role in the emergence of Art Nouveau. Paved the way for secession of the Pre-Raphaelites with their decoration, symbolism, and passion for the lines and the painter James McNeill Whistler. While in England ultimately increased mature form of secession, it is for the continent, these trends were very important factor . Significant influence – and not only on secession – has had a Japanese art, which appeared in Europe in the ’60s Nineteenth century. In addition to the superficial use of oriental accessories in the works, the artists learned about a new approach to the problem of perspective, to compose, asymmetric, bright color, or manipulate an empty plane.
For the development and spread of the style of the important role played by art magazines, then issued in large numbers (in the 90s of XIX century Europe was at least 100 titles ).
Aubrey Beardsley, Pavia dress
Victor Horta, Maison Tassel – staircase, 1892-3
Fernand Khnopff, close the door behind him, 1891
The beginnings of secession arose simultaneously and, apparently, independently of each other at several points of the earth. Its individual components are in the eighties in Catalonia, the United States, England, France . In the 90s XIX style suddenly appeared in various centers, such as England, Belgium, France.
As already mentioned, the emergence of Art Nouveau in England by many factors. As one of the first British artists of Art Nouveau is considered a designer Arthur H. Mackmurdo, author of book covers for Wren’s City Churches (1883) with the motif of undulating, dynamic flowers. Was a leading creator of Aubrey Beardsley, creating in the 90s XIX, who in his drawings very often (and very boldly) drew the erotic sphere (eg, nymphomania). His illustrations are marked by a strong and płaszczyznowość linearism, sophistication, waiving of light and shadow, deformation – sometimes even caricatured.
It was in Brussels, Belgium – the very lively art center – soon appeared in the American Civil architecture . The first work was the Maison Tassel (Tassel House), built by Victor Horta in the years 1892-3. Facility received a variety of shapes, penetrating each other. The staircase is decorated with motifs of a dynamic, meandering lines, mounted on walls, floors, railings and columns. The architect placed the facade and bay windows with different shapes. Unclear is the question of originality Maison Tassel, and the extent to which other artists could affect the emergence of the former, in full uniform and Art Nouveau architectural. Horta was the author of many other buildings and structures (eg, Hôtel Solvay, 1895-1900; Maison du Peuple, 1896-9), the fore the iron structure, using krzywolinijne ornaments and a variety of materials.
The second author was a leading secessionist, Henry van de Velde, first working as a painter (and abstractionist neoimpresjonista), from the 90s as an architect, interior designer, furniture, porcelain, jewelry, etc. The first major work was a villa in Uccle Bloemenwerf of Art Nouveau furniture and equipment. Then designed interiors for S. Bing to the building in conjunction Paris. Maison Bing, or the Maison de l’Art Nouveau, met a mixed reception. In 1897, the exhibition is held Veldego works, which solidified his position, becoming quite a revelation for the young artists of a new style of . After the 1900 Van de Velde worked in Germany, a number of interior design and theater Werkbund in Cologne (1914). He was also a theory of art, writing articles and lecturing. He advocated the art, without distinction between fine arts and crafts, accessible to all. He was a supporter of the machine, and even preached the beauty of new inventions (eg, locomotives). Used the first line.
In painting the main character was a Symbolist Fernand Khnopff, creating a mood of melancholic paintings of women.
Similar traits or associations with secession sees in some works of Paul Gauguin, Emile Bernard and Vincent van Gogh. The similarities consist in the rejection by the painters of realism and impressionism, by using a line and a flat spot, to express ideas and provoke feelings. Also seen in nabistów features in common with Art Nouveau: symbolism, the use of flat color patches, interest in various fields of art. The rich achievements are Auguste Rodin sculptures, which use the Civil wave and liquidity (Danaides, 1885, Gate of Hell, 1880-1917).
The main centers of French Art Nouveau were Paris and Nancy. In the capital of the leading work of the French Art Nouveau architect – Hector Guimard, known mainly as the creator to enter the Paris Metro station. Made of iron pre-painted in green, are based on the lush, flowing lines. Raised the houses and palaces (eg Castel Béranger, 1894-8), and public buildings (such as room in the Humbert de Romans, 1902, with exposed steel structure). In Paris, the most prominent goldsmith work and jewelry art nouveau, René Lalique .
The period brought a special flourish of Art Nouveau poster art. One of the fathers of the modern poster was Jules Hereth, operating with vibrant colors, unusual krojami letter and simplified drawing, the second – Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec.
By contrast, Nancy created Émile Gallé, worked in the field and glass-making furniture. Of particular interest had for nature, especially plants. He collected them and kept, drawing inspiration from them to the created works. In its articles of glass applied different techniques and shapes of the vessels. Through our own methods of staining glass has been a wide range of colors, using primarily dairy and dull shades.
Hermann Obrist, cyclamen, 1895
Gaudi, Casa Battló
For the development of Jugendstil important event was the creation of the Munich magazine „Jugend” (1896), lavishly illustrated, inter alia, by Otto Eckmann. This designer created the graphics and such flowing tapestry of swans, a flat spot and the operating line, and devoid of light. He also created the characteristic Art Nouveau font. Other important German magazine this time are: „Simplicissimus” and „Lord.”
Hermann Obrist was the designer and sculptor. Like Morris, he wanted to renew the crafts and to this end he founded in 1897 and handicraft workshops (Vereinigte Werkstäten für Kunst im Handwek). In his embroidery cyclamen (1895), the bluish background presented undulating, serpentine yellow plant. Due to its highly dynamic nature of the embroidery is called the strike a whip.
August Endell designed the facade of the photographic studio of „Elvira” (1897-8) on a flat wall and fitted with a variety of windows, put a huge, dynamic relief, semi-abstract, resembling a bird’s wing, waves and leaves. This time on his wildly audacious relief, such as the most exuberant, most disheveled secession, scandalized long good-natured Polish Munich and was finally destroyed by Hitler’s rule .
The main center of Barcelona in Spain was a leading creator – Antoni Gaudí. His work was a mixture of different styles, which eventually gained a distinct, original character, partly secession. His early work, Casa Vicens (1878-1880), received the Art Nouveau iron fence, based on the motifs of plants (palm trees, lotus) lines and curves. Serpentine grating placed in the portals of the Palace Güell (1885-9). Park Güell decorated unusual buildings. Finally, he built two houses – Casa Batlló and Casa Milà – a rolling, swaying facades, deprived almost entirely of straight lines. The latter was compared to the hardened lava, sand dunes and rocks washed rozkołysanego sea. On the roof the architect has placed a fanciful chimneys. The work of his life became the Sagrada Familia, which is difficult to classify in the framework of a style. In part, the neo-Gothic, part Art Nouveau, topped with four towers, reminiscent of both cubism, expressionism and .
Signs of secession is called early Van Gogh work, shaping under the influence of Japanese art and based on the troubled lines. For further development of secession in the Netherlands had an impact: Jan Toorop and Johan Prikker. Toorop, whose works often emphasizes the symbolic connotations, often painted compositions confusing, rhythmically repeated. Repeatedly used the theme slender women, wrapped the long robes and hair.
Mackintosh, the project to the tea room Miss Cranston
In Scotland, namely Glasgow, formed a distinct variant of Art Nouveau, designed by Charles Mackintosa, Herbert MacNeira and their wives, Margaret and Frances MacDonald. Their work was characterized by savings combined with sophisticated, bright colors, undulating lines of simple addition.
Mackintosh, architect and designer, created a building of Glasgow School of Art with a simple, asymmetric lump inside the tea house, and Miss Cranston: The Tearoom Buchanan Street (1896-7) and the Willow Tearoom (1903-4). The room was divided into Buchanan Street and the metal bars on the walls adorned with painted figures of women and roses.
Joseph Olbrich, Vienna Secession Building
Gustav Klimt, The Kiss
Vienna late nineteenth century was a center rich in new movements, there were active: Richard Strauss, Gustav Mahler, Sigmund Freud and Arnold Schoenberg. In 1897, the association zawiązało artistic „Sezession”, which is derived from the Polish name for a whole style. The Association had its own building, built by Joseph Maria Olbrich in the years 1898-9, it seemed a magazine „Ver Sacrum”. Its multi-President, Gustav Klimt, is the author of erotic images oversaturated, representing almost exclusively women. Their heads depicted realistically, while the costumes and the backgrounds are flat, decorated with geometric or floral patterns. Characteristic of him was the use of gilding.
The architect Otto Wagner, after a period of use of old styles, argued – though not for long – on secession. Created the two stations S-Bahn in Vienna and the church in Steinhof. With time, his buildings have become more compact and block, with almost no traces of Art Nouveau.
Vienna Secession was notable for its penchant for straight lines and geometric shapes and solids, especially the square. , Reduced the ornament and floral motifs. So there were parallels with the Scottish secession, which resulted from joint efforts and mutual contact between the two environments. Devoid of the typical features of full secession, herald the modern art.
The secession of the Czech Republic emerged in recent years of the nineteenth century. An artist by identifying clearly the Czech Art Nouveau is Alfons Mucha, painter, author of posters. He developed his own style and repertoire of themes, based on lines, curves, vegetable ornaments, bright colors and specific forms of women with long hair. He designed many posters and commercial theater, stained glass, pictures, calendars, etc.
Stanislaw Wyspianski, Rose, ornament of the „Life”
Stanislaw Wyspianski, Motherhood
It is wrong to treat the term „Young Poland” as a synonym for secession; Young Poland was larger phenomenon in which the secession occurred, but not every work of Young Poland was Art Nouveau features.
Secession was transplanted to the Polish from other countries, but the ground beneath it was not as prepared as in England. Became the main center of Krakow, where the cultural life can develop quite freely. The most important figure was the secession of Krakow Stanislaw Wyspianski odżegnujący itself from the name of art nouveau. When he designed the interior of the House of Medicine has been called secession, he replied, a malicious child’s play:
Wyuczono parrot words about art
admit that the ease was in this science;
So when the word „secession” excuse she understood
welcomed the expression of all new work.
So my style chairs with a medical home
called „secession” – smoothly and without shame.
Need to wait patiently until some time
a new phrase to parrot back the memory stick can be.
Although the shape of the Arts is not change,
phrase, however, is enough to damn THOUGHT wzięni .
Although the artist himself did not like where his work included in the framework of secession, which in addition to the general reluctance of artists to „labeling” their works, was also due to mating in Galicia word secession from Vienna, and thus – from the Austro-Hungarian monarchy , in his work can be seen many elements of Art Nouveau. Like other artists secesyjni, was the founder of a comprehensive, dealing with graphics, painting, furniture design, interior design, fonts, writing plays, poetry, etc. He also wanted a synthesis of arts, works of art overall, which perform in their productions prepared by the Interior or the projects . Willingly used the wavy and flat spots and exploit floral motifs. Plants draw the „herbarium” and used in many works such as paintings in the Franciscan church in Krakow.
Wladyslaw Slewinski, the Czesząca, 1897
Another artist, whose achievements can see impact of secession, was Mehoffer, author of Strange Garden (1902 / 3), where the figures in the garden rises a huge, supernatural size dragonfly. From the 90s XIX 40 years created stained glass windows for the cathedral in Freiburg. Their style changed over time, yielding to the impacts of secession (eg, stained glass window from St. Catherine and Barbara, 1898-1900, with floral and wavy lines). Secession was the character of the bookish image Mehoffer. Secession also sees some paintings Wladyslaw Slewinski (eg Czesząca a), Witold Wojtkiewicz, Ruszczyc Ferdinand, and Mieczyslaw Jakimowicz Edward Okuni.
Among the influences of Art Nouveau sculptors pronounced in Xawery Dunikowski, especially among pregnant women. Waclaw Szymanowski, best known as the author of the Chopin monument in Warsaw’s Baths, was the author of Art Nouveau and other sculptures, such as Crying, a monument to Waclaw Szymanowski-father, Wave, Mickiewicz on improvisation.
Just as in the West, as in Poland and artists interested in the craft, creating an association „Polish Applied Arts”. Also were designed interior inside the building Wyspianski Medical Society in Cracow (1905), Mehoffer inside the Chamber of Commerce in Cracow (1905), Charles Frycz interior „Michalik’s Cave” (1911).
Decline and the subsequent receipt of
Exhibition of La Maison Bing – L’Art Nouveau in the Museum of Fine Arts in Brussels, 2006
After the peak period of secession, the years 1892-1902, around 1905 this style has been exhausted. Some of the artists had died, some returned to historical forms, others began to create in newer styles, and still others work has zbanalizowaniu. The reasons for the collapse of secession were different: ornamentation hypertrophy, excessive striving for originality, mass production of weak products, the emergence of a large number of mediocre and shoddy works, niefunkcjonalność items and more.
In the 20 and 30 Secession of the twentieth century was mostly regarded as synonymous with bad taste. Paul Morand wrote in 1931: Do not taste fallen so low. Comes from Vienna, a wave of flooding Europe error, indicating perhaps the twilight. This is a lethargy, fainting. [...] Artists seems to derive from nature – from armeria, with shells, with the ears or grain, but never were so far away from it . Interest in science secession began in 1925 with the work of German art historian Ernst Michalski entwicklungsgeschichteliche Die Bedeutung des Jugendstils. 5 years later, Salvador Dali, as the first artist since the fall of secession, expressed his admiration for the style of . Increased number of publications and exhibitions devoted to secession, which ultimately led to the emergence of a positive attitude towards secession, and even fashion. As a result, in the 60s it was possible to formulate the following opinion: Secession enjoys today in the western world wziętością unsurpassed .